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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PUHE.2021.02.025

Vaccine hesitancy in the era of COVID-19.

04 Mar 2021-Public Health (W.B. Saunders)-Vol. 194, pp 245-251
Abstract: Objectives In 2019, a new coronavirus has been identified and many efforts have been directed toward the development of effective vaccines. However, the willingness for vaccination is deeply influenced by several factors. So the aim of our review was to analyze the theme of vaccine hesitancy during COVID-19 pandemic, with a particular focus on vaccine hesitancy toward COVID-19 vaccine. Study design Narrative review. Methods In November 2020, we performed a search for original peer-reviewed articles in the electronic database PubMed (MEDLINE). The key search terms were “Vaccine hesitancy AND COVID-19”. We searched for studies published during COVID-19 pandemic and reporting information about the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy. Results Fifteen studies were included in the review. The percentage of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance was not so high (up to 86.1% students or 77.6% general population); for influenza vaccine, the maximum percentage was 69%. Several factors influenced the acceptance or refusal (ethnicity, working status, religiosity, politics, gender, age, education, income, etc.). The most given reasons to refuse vaccine were as follows: being against vaccines in general, concerns about safety/thinking that a vaccine produced in a rush is too dangerous, considering the vaccine useless because of the harmless nature of COVID-19, general lack of trust, doubts about the efficiency of the vaccine, belief to be already immunized, doubt about the provenience of vaccine. Conclusions The high vaccine hesitancy, also during COVID-19 pandemic, represents an important problem, and further efforts should be done to support people and give them correct information about vaccines.

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Topics: Vaccination (56%), Influenza vaccine (54%), Population (51%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/VACCINES9040379
13 Apr 2021-Vaccine
Abstract: The success of mass COVID-19 vaccination campaigns rests on widespread uptake. However, although vaccinations provide good protection, they do not offer full immunity and while they likely reduce transmission of the virus to others, the extent of this remains uncertain. This produces a dilemma for communicators who wish to be transparent about benefits and harms and encourage continued caution in vaccinated individuals but not undermine confidence in an important public health measure. In two large pre-registered experimental studies on quota-sampled UK public participants we investigate the effects of providing transparent communication-including uncertainty-about vaccination effectiveness on decision-making. In Study 1 (n = 2097) we report that detailed information about COVID-19 vaccines, including results of clinical trials, does not have a significant impact on beliefs about the efficacy of such vaccines, concerns over side effects, or intentions to receive a vaccine. Study 2 (n = 2217) addressed concerns that highlighting the need to maintain protective behaviours (e.g., social distancing) post-vaccination may lower perceptions of vaccine efficacy and willingness to receive a vaccine. We do not find evidence of this: transparent messages did not significantly reduce perceptions of vaccine efficacy, and in some cases increased perceptions of efficacy. We again report no main effect of messages on intentions to receive a vaccine. The results of both studies suggest that transparently informing people of the limitations of vaccinations does not reduce intentions to be vaccinated but neither does it increase intentions to engage in protective behaviours post-vaccination.

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Topics: Vaccine efficacy (63%), Vaccination (51%)

12 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH18094617
Abstract: The severity and pervasiveness of the COVID-19 pandemic have necessitated the emergency use of COVID-19 vaccines. Three vaccines have been approved in the United States (USA). However, there is still some hesitancy in COVID-19 vaccine acceptability among some subgroups, including college students. While research is limited on vaccine acceptability behavior among college students, preliminary data suggests hesitancy as being high. This study aimed to explain the correlates of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among college students who reported hesitancy toward the COVID-19 vaccine and those who did not using the initiation component of the multi-theory model (MTM) of health behavior change. Using a cross-sectional study design, data were collected from a Southern USA University (n = 282) utilizing a valid and reliable 27-item questionnaire in February and March 2021. Almost half (47.5%) of participants reported hesitancy to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. The three constructs of MTM's initiation model, behavioral confidence (b = 0.089, p < 0.001), participatory dialogue (b = 0.056, p < 0.001), and changes in the physical environment (b = 0.066, p = 0.001) were significantly associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among those who were not hesitant to take the vaccine and accounted for 54.8% of the variance. Among those who were hesitant to take the COVID-19 vaccine, the MTM construct of behavioral confidence (b = 0.022, p < 0.001) was significant along with Republican Party political affiliation (b = -0.464, p = 0.004), which was negatively associated with vaccine acceptance. The model accounted for 60.6% of the variance in intention to take the COVID-19 vaccine. This study provides evidence for the utility of MTM as a timely intervention to design messages for college students to enhance COVID-19 vaccine acceptability.

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8 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/VACCINES9060628
10 Jun 2021-Vaccine
Abstract: This retrospective cohort study compared the rates of virologically-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections, symptomatic or lethal COVID-19 among the residents of the Italian province of Pescara who received one or two doses of COVID-19 vaccines, versus the unvaccinated. The official data of the National Health System were used, and a total of 69,539 vaccinated adults were compared with 175,687 unvaccinated. Among the subjects who received at least one vaccine dose, 85 infections (0.12%), 18 severe and 3 lethal COVID-19 cases were recorded after an average follow-up of 38 days. Among the unvaccinated, the numbers were 6948 (4.00%), 933 (0.53%) and 241 (0.14%), respectively. The serious adverse event reports—yet unconfirmed—were 24 out of 102,394 administered doses. In a Cox model, adjusting for age, gender, and selected comorbidities, the effectiveness of either BNT162b2, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or mRNA-1273 vaccines was higher than 95% in preventing infections (mostly due to B.1.1.7 variant), symptomatic or lethal COVID-19. No differences were observed across genders, and among the 691 subjects who received the second dose of vaccine later than the recommended date. Although preliminary, these findings support current immunization policies and may help reducing vaccine hesitancy.

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7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/01296612.2021.1921963
Rubal Kanozia1, Ritu Arya1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 2021-
Abstract: The world ground to a halt at the onset of COVID-19 pandemic in 2019. Many countries imposed lockdowns, and there are those that continue to do so as of this writing. The current global pandemic ha...

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Topics: Pandemic (54%)

7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/JCM10122540
Michela Sabbatucci, Anna Odone1, Carlo Signorelli2, Andrea Siddu3  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Maintaining high vaccine coverage (VC) for pediatric vaccinations is crucial to ensure herd immunity, reducing the risk of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD). The Italian vaccination Law (n. 119/2017) reinforced mandates for polio, diphtheria, tetanus, and hepatitis B, extending the mandate to pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b, chickenpox, measles, mumps, and rubella, for children up to 16 years of age. We analyzed the national temporal trends of childhood immunization rates from 2014 to 2019 to evaluate the impact of the mandatory reinforcement law set in 2017 as a sustainable public health strategy in Italy. In a 3-year period, 9 of the 10 compulsory vaccinations reached the threshold of 95% and VC for chicken pox increased up to 90.5%, significantly. During the same period, the recommended vaccinations (against meningococcus B and C, pneumococcus, and rotavirus) also recorded a significant increase in VC trends. In conclusion, although the reinforcement of compulsory vaccination generated a wide public debate that was amplified by traditional and social media, the 3-year evaluation highlights positive results.

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Topics: Vaccination (57%), Herd immunity (54%), Measles (52%) ... read more

4 Citations


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Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2020.02.07.937862
11 Feb 2020-bioRxiv
Abstract: The present outbreak of lower respiratory tract infections, including respiratory distress syndrome, is the third spillover, in only two decades, of an animal coronavirus to humans resulting in a major epidemic. Here, the Coronavirus Study Group (CSG) of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, which is responsible for developing the official classification of viruses and taxa naming (taxonomy) of the Coronaviridae family, assessed the novelty of the human pathogen tentatively named 2019-nCoV. Based on phylogeny, taxonomy and established practice, the CSG formally recognizes this virus as a sister to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoVs) of the species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus and designates it as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To facilitate communication, the CSG further proposes to use the following naming convention for individual isolates: SARS-CoV-2/Isolate/Host/Date/Location. The spectrum of clinical manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infections in humans remains to be determined. The independent zoonotic transmission of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 highlights the need for studying the entire (virus) species to complement research focused on individual pathogenic viruses of immediate significance. This research will improve our understanding of virus-host interactions in an ever-changing environment and enhance our preparedness for future outbreaks.

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Topics: Coronavirus (68%), Respiratory tract infections (55%), Virus classification (54%) ... read more

781 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/JOIM.13091
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2, a novel coronavirus from the same family as SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, has spread worldwide leading the World Health Organization to declare a pandemic. The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), presents flu-like symptoms which can become serious in high-risk individuals. Here, we provide an overview of the known clinical features and treatment options for COVID-19. We carried out a systematic literature search using the main online databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, UpToDate, Embase and Web of Science) with the following keywords: 'COVID-19', '2019-nCoV', 'coronavirus' and 'SARS-CoV-2'. We included publications from 1 January 2019 to 3 April 2020 which focused on clinical features and treatments. We found that infection is transmitted from human to human and through contact with contaminated environmental surfaces. Hand hygiene is fundamental to prevent contamination. Wearing personal protective equipment is recommended in specific environments. The main symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, cough, fatigue, slight dyspnoea, sore throat, headache, conjunctivitis and gastrointestinal issues. Real-time PCR is used as a diagnostic tool using nasal swab, tracheal aspirate or bronchoalveolar lavage samples. Computed tomography findings are important for both diagnosis and follow-up. To date, there is no evidence of any effective treatment for COVID-19. The main therapies being used to treat the disease are antiviral drugs, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and respiratory therapy. In conclusion, although many therapies have been proposed, quarantine is the only intervention that appears to be effective in decreasing the contagion rate. Specifically designed randomized clinical trials are needed to determine the most appropriate evidence-based treatment modality.

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556 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10654-020-00671-Y
Abstract: Vaccine hesitancy remains a barrier to full population inoculation against highly infectious diseases. Coincident with the rapid developments of COVID-19 vaccines globally, concerns about the safety of such a vaccine could contribute to vaccine hesitancy. We analyzed 1941 anonymous questionnaires completed by healthcare workers and members of the general Israeli population, regarding acceptance of a potential COVID-19 vaccine. Our results indicate that healthcare staff involved in the care of COVID-19 positive patients, and individuals considering themselves at risk of disease, were more likely to self-report acquiescence to COVID-19 vaccination if and when available. In contrast, parents, nurses, and medical workers not caring for SARS-CoV-2 positive patients expressed higher levels of vaccine hesitancy. Interventional educational campaigns targeted towards populations at risk of vaccine hesitancy are therefore urgently needed to combat misinformation and avoid low inoculation rates.

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Topics: Viral Vaccine (56%), Vaccination (55%), Population (52%)

440 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.7326/M20-3569
Abstract: Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly instigated a global pandemic. Vaccine development is proceeding at an unprecedented pace. Once available, it will be important to maximize vaccine uptake and coverage. Objective To assess intent to be vaccinated against COVID-19 among a representative sample of adults in the United States and identify predictors of and reasons for vaccine hesitancy. Design Cross-sectional survey, fielded from 16 through 20 April 2020. Setting Representative sample of adults residing in the United States. Participants Approximately 1000 adults drawn from the AmeriSpeak probability-based research panel, covering approximately 97% of the U.S. household population. Measurements Intent to be vaccinated against COVID-19 was measured with the question, "When a vaccine for the coronavirus becomes available, will you get vaccinated?" Response options were "yes," "no," and "not sure." Participants who responded "no" or "not sure" were asked to provide a reason. Results A total of 991 AmeriSpeak panel members responded. Overall, 57.6% of participants (n = 571) intended to be vaccinated, 31.6% (n = 313) were not sure, and 10.8% (n = 107) did not intend to be vaccinated. Factors independently associated with vaccine hesitancy (a response of "no" or "not sure") included younger age, Black race, lower educational attainment, and not having received the influenza vaccine in the prior year. Reasons for vaccine hesitancy included vaccine-specific concerns, a need for more information, antivaccine attitudes or beliefs, and a lack of trust. Limitations Participants' intent to be vaccinated was explored before a vaccine was available and when the pandemic was affecting a narrower swath of the United States. Questions about specific information or factors that might increase vaccination acceptance were not included. The survey response rate was 16.1%. Conclusion This national survey, conducted during the coronavirus pandemic, revealed that approximately 3 in 10 adults were not sure they would accept vaccination and 1 in 10 did not intend to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Targeted and multipronged efforts will be needed to increase acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine when one becomes available. Primary funding source Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

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Topics: Population (52%), Vaccination (52%), Influenza vaccine (52%)

396 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/21645515.2020.1735227
Kuldeep Dhama1, Khan Sharun1, Ruchi Tiwari, Maryam Dadar2  +3 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: The novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19 or Coronavirus disease 2019) that emerged from Wuhan, Hubei province of China has spread to many countries worldwide. Efforts have been made to develop vac...

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Topics: Coronavirus (66%)

346 Citations


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