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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/02640414.2020.1827530

Validity and reliability of a flywheel squat test in sport.

04 Mar 2021-Journal of Sports Sciences (Informa UK Limited)-Vol. 39, Iss: 5, pp 482-488
Abstract: The aims of this study were to examine the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the flywheel (FW)-squat test. Twenty male amateur team sports athletes (mean±SD: age 23±3 years) complet...

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Topics: Validity (58%), Construct validity (57%), Reliability (statistics) (57%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/15438627.2020.1870977
Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of flywheel training on female populations, report practical recommendations for practitioners based on the currently available evidence, underline the limitations of current literature, and establish future research directions. Studies were searched through the electronic databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science) following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis statement guidelines. The methodological quality of the seven studies included in this review ranged from 10 to 19 points (good to excellent), with an average score of 14-points (good). These studies were carried out between 2004 and 2019 and comprised a total of 100 female participants. The training duration ranged from 5 weeks to 24 weeks, with volume ranging from 1 to 4 sets and 7 to 12 repetitions, and frequency ranged from 1 to 3 times a week. The contemporary literature suggests that flywheel training is a safe and time-effective strategy to enhance physical outcomes with young and elderly females. With this information, practitioners may be inclined to prescribe flywheel training as an effective countermeasure for injuries or falls and as potent stimulus for physical enhancement.

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Topics: Systematic review (53%)

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SYM13010111
11 Jan 2021-Symmetry
Abstract: Assessment of lateral symmetries (LS) of lower limbs has been widely investigated. However, there are no studies about LS during exposure to high eccentric and concentric loads during flywheel (FW) squats. A total of 422 young, physically active participants performed squats on an FW device with different equidistant loads (0.05, 0.125 and 0.2 kg∙m2). The mean and peak force of the left and right leg were assessed for the concentric and eccentric contaction phase. LS values were calculated for each load and phase of squat. Our results showed that the absolute mean and peak force of the concentric and eccentric phase of contraction had excellent reliability, while LS values were more reliable when eccentric force was used for their calculation. Mean and peak forces were increased with the higher FW load. In general, we found a decrease in LS values in the concentric phase of contraction with the higher load. Moreover, values of LS are similar to a wide range of other functional movements. Nevertheless, symmetrical force application during squatting on a FW device should be satisfied regardless of the FW load. Due to the large sample size, our results are valuable as a reference point when athletes are evaluated during training.

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Topics: Squat (52%), Concentric (51%)

2 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SPORTS9090129
13 Sep 2021-
Abstract: (1) Background: the present study examined the isokinetic peak torque exerted by both knee extensors and flexors, anterior–posterior imbalance and the magnitude and direction of inter-limb asymmetry in professional and academy soccer players. (2) Methods: one hundred soccer players (professional = 50, elite academy = 50) volunteered to take part in this investigation. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure the knee extensor (quadriceps) and flexors muscle (hamstrings) torques of the limbs as well as inter-limb asymmetries—using a standard percentage difference equation. (3) Results: professional players exhibited significantly greater (effect size [ES] = large) strength levels in the quadriceps and hamstrings under both testing conditions, significantly higher (small to moderate) intra-limb ratio values for 60°·s−1 but not for the 300°·s−1 test condition, significantly (small to moderate) lower inter-limb asymmetry values for all test conditions, with the exception of the hamstrings at 60°·s−1 and the direction of asymmetry was poor to slight, indicating that limb dominance was rarely the same between groups. (4) Conclusions: this study shows that isokinetic assessments, i.e., peak torque exerted by both knee extensors and flexors and intra-limb ratio, and the subsequent inter-limb asymmetry, i.e., magnitude and direction, can differentiate between professional and academy soccer players.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/APP112210541
09 Nov 2021-Applied Sciences
Abstract: Research into flywheel (FW) resistance training and force–velocity–power (F–v–P) profiling has recently gained attention. Ground reaction force (GRF) and velocity (v) during FW squats can be predicted from shaft rotational data. Our study aimed to compare the inter-set reliability of GRF, v, and F–v–P relationship output variables calculated from force plates and linear encoder (presumed gold-standard) and rotary encoder data. Fifty participants performed two sets of FW squats at four inertias. Peak and mean concentric and eccentric GRF, v, and F–v–P outcomes from mean variables during the concentric phase of the squat were calculated. Good to excellent reliability was found for GRF and v (ICC > 0.85), regardless of the measure and the variable type. The F–v–P outcomes showed moderate to good reliability (ICC > 0.74). Inter-measure bias (p < 0.05) was found in the majority of GRF and v variables, as well as for all the calculated F–v–P outcomes (trivial to large TEs) with very large to perfect correlations for v (r 0.797–0.948), GRF (r 0.712–0.959), and, finally, F–v–P outcomes (ICC 0.737–0.943). Rotary encoder overestimated the force plates and linear encoder variables, and the differences were dependent on the level of inertia. Despite high reliability, FW device users should be aware of the discrepancy between the measures.

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Topics: Rotary encoder (53%)

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40 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1249/MSS.0B013E31818CB278
Abstract: Statistical guidelines and expert statements are now available to assist in the analysis and reporting of studies in some biomedical disciplines. We present here a more progressive resource for sample-based studies, meta-analyses, and case studies in sports medicine and exercise science. We offer forthright advice on the following controversial or novel issues: using precision of estimation for inferences about population effects in preference to null-hypothesis testing, which is inadequate for assessing clinical or practical importance; justifying sample size via acceptable precision or confidence for clinical decisions rather than via adequate power for statistical significance; showing SD rather than SEM, to better communicate the magnitude of differences in means and nonuniformity of error; avoiding purely nonparametric analyses, which cannot provide inferences about magnitude and are unnecessary; using regression statistics in validity studies, in preference to the impractical and biased limits of agreement; making greater use of qualitative methods to enrich sample-based quantitative projects; and seeking ethics approval for public access to the depersonalized raw data of a study, to address the need for more scrutiny of research and better meta-analyses. Advice on less contentious issues includes the following: using covariates in linear models to adjust for confounders, to account for individual differences, and to identify potential mechanisms of an effect; using log transformation to deal with nonuniformity of effects and error; identifying and deleting outliers; presenting descriptive, effect, and inferential statistics in appropriate formats; and contending with bias arising from problems with sampling, assignment, blinding, measurement error, and researchers' prejudices. This article should advance the field by stimulating debate, promoting innovative approaches, and serving as a useful checklist for authors, reviewers, and editors.

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5,261 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2165/00007256-199826040-00002
Greg Atkinson1, Alan M. Nevill1Institutions (1)
01 Oct 1998-Sports Medicine
Abstract: Minimal measurement error (reliability) during the collection of interval- and ratio-type data is critically important to sports medicine research. The main components of measurement error are systematic bias (e.g. general learning or fatigue effects on the tests) and random error due to biological or mechanical variation. Both error components should be meaningfully quantified for the sports physician to relate the described error to judgements regarding ‘analytical goals’ (the requirements of the measurement tool for effective practical use) rather than the statistical significance of any reliability indicators.

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2,978 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0895-4356(99)00206-1
Abstract: A review of the literature suggests there are two major aspects of responsiveness. We define the first as "internal responsiveness," which characterizes the ability of a measure to change over a prespecified time frame, and the second as "external responsiveness, " which reflects the extent to which change in a measure relates to corresponding change in a reference measure of clinical or health status. The properties and interpretation of commonly used internal and external responsiveness statistics are examined. It is from the interpretation point of view that external responsiveness statistics are considered particularly attractive. The usefulness of regression models for assessing external responsiveness is also highlighted.

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1,184 Citations


Abstract: The primary aim of this study was to determine reliability and factorial validity of squat (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) tests. The secondary aim was to compare 3 popular methods for the estimation of vertical jumping height. Physical education students (n = 93) performed 7 explosive power tests: 5 different vertical jumps (Sargent jump, Abalakow's jump with arm swing and without arm swing, SJ, and CMJ) and 2 horizontal jumps (standing long jump and standing triple jump). The greatest reliability among all jumping tests (Cronbach's alpha = 0.97 and 0.98) had SJ and CMJ. The reliability alpha coefficients for other jumps were also high and varied between 0.93 and 0.96. Within-subject variation (CV) in jumping tests ranged between 2.4 and 4.6%, the values being lowest in both horizontal jumps and CMJ. Factor analysis resulted in the extraction of only 1 significant principal component, which explained 66.43% of the variance of all 7 jumping tests. Since all jumping tests had high correlation coefficients with the principal component (r = 0.76-0.87), it was interpreted as the explosive power factor. The CMJ test showed the highest relationship with the explosive power factor (r = 0.87), that is, the greatest factorial validity. Other jumping tests had lower but relatively homogeneous correlation with the explosive power factor extracted. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that CMJ and SJ, measured by means of contact mat and digital timer, are the most reliable and valid field tests for the estimation of explosive power of the lower limbs in physically active men.

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Topics: Jumping (58%), Vertical jump (56%), Jump (50%)

780 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1123/IJSPP.3.2.131
Abstract: Purpose: To establish the reliability of various measures obtained during single and repeated countermovement jump (CMJ) performance in an elite athlete population. Methods: Two studies, each involving 15 elite Australian Rules Football (ARF) players were conducted where subjects performed two days, separated by one week, of AM and PM trials of either a single (CMJ1) or 5 repeated CMJ (CMJ5). Each trial was conducted on a portable force-plate. The intraday, interday, and overall typical error (TE) and coefficient of variation (CV%) were calculated for numerous variables in each jump type. Results: A number of CMJ1 and CMJ5 variables displayed high intraday, interday, and overall reliability. In the CMJ1 condition, mean force (CV 1.08%) was the most reliable variable. In the CMJ5, flight time and relative mean force displayed the highest repeatability with CV of 1.88% and 1.57% respectively. CMJ1Mean force was the only variable with an overall TE < smallest worthwhile change (SWC). Conclusion: Selected variables obtained during CMJ1 and CMJ5 performance can be used to assess the impact of both acute and chronic training and competition. Variables derived from the CMJ5 may respond differently than their CMJ1 counterparts and should provide insights into differential mechanisms of response and adaptation.

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Topics: Population (51%), Vertical jump (51%)

423 Citations


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