scispace - formally typeset
Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/02640414.2020.1835221

Values and clean sport.

04 Mar 2021-Journal of Sports Sciences (Routledge)-Vol. 39, Iss: 5, pp 533-541
Abstract: The spirit of sport, which encompasses intrinsic values associated with sport participation, is core to the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) strategy for doping prevention. The contribution of these values to clean sport has yet to be established. In this study, athletes rated the importance of spirit of sport values (WADA, 2015) and sport values (Lee et al., 2000, 2008) and indicated their clean sport likelihood in a hypothetical scenario. Clean sport likelihood was positively predicted by the five spirit of sport values (ethics/fair play/honesty, respect for rules/laws, dedication/commitment, teamwork, community/solidarity), two sport value domains (morality, competence), and 11 sport values (contract maintenance, being fair, conscientiousness, sportspersonship, show skills, health/fitness, caring/compassion, team cohesion, achievement, tolerance, obedience). Clean sport likelihood was best predicted by moral values.

... read more

Citations
  More

8 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PSYCHSPORT.2021.101932
Abstract: Background In sport the narrative is changing from anti-doping to pro-clean sport. Yet, our understanding of what ‘clean sport’ means to athletes is notably absent from the literature. Objectives Working together with elite athletes and National Anti-Doping Organisations (NADOs), this study explored the meaning and importance of ‘clean sport’ and ‘clean athlete identity’. Design Community-based participatory research design was employed to explore (a) how elite athletes define clean sport and being a clean athlete; (b) the hopes and challenges associated with clean sport and being a clean athlete; and (c) what can be done in anti-doping to elicit clean sport. Methods Five elite athletes in five European countries (Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Slovenia and United Kingdom) were recruited as co-researchers by their respective NADOs, trained for their role as co-researchers and individually interviewed. Seventy-seven elite athletes were then purposefully recruited for 12 athlete-led national focus groups. Finally, the five athlete co-researchers and five athlete participants took part in one 2.5-h long international focus group. Results Reflexive thematic analysis resulted in generating four overarching themes: ‘clean is being true to the self’, ‘clean performance enhancement has multiple meanings’, ‘clean is not a solo act’ and ‘the problems and solutions are systemic’. Collectively, the themes showed that the clean athlete identity is generally rooted in upbringing, early experiences and love of sport; and characterised by continued, intrinsically motivated commitment to fundamental values and morals acquired in childhood. In contrast, the concept of clean performance-enhancement is highly idiosyncratic and flexible. Elite athletes value anti-doping efforts but their experiences of disparity and unfairness in doping control undermine their trust in anti-doping. Conclusion Clean athlete identity is a social endeavour and artefact, which needs to be reflected in and developed through evidence-informed anti-doping interventions. Raising athletes' voices via collaboration and participatory research can be an enriching experience for athletes and researchers alike, and a worthwhile endeavour for sport organisations with responsibility for anti-doping. To make anti-doping education personally relevant, the richness of individual interpretation of ‘clean’ for the self (i.e., clean athlete identity) and performance-enhancement must be acknowledged, respected and cultivated.

... read more

Topics: Athletes (54%)

5 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/10508422.2020.1837136
26 Oct 2020-Ethics & Behavior
Abstract: Although basic values have been linked with unethical attitudes and behavior in non-sport contexts, their association with doping in sport has yet to be established. We examined the relationships b...

... read more

Topics: Athletes (58%)

4 Citations


Open access
01 Jan 2011-
Abstract: Although the use of banned drugs in sport is not a new phenomenon, little is known about the experiences and perceptions of athletes who have committed anti-doping rule violations. This study qualitatively explored the experiences of 18 athletes (from the sports of bodybuilding, powerlifting, cricket, sprint kayak, rugby league, and swimming) who had committed anti-doping violations. Themes explored included motivations for initiating and maintaining doping, the psychology of doping, deterrents to doping, and views on current anti-doping policy. In most cases doping had started early in their careers. The perceived culture of the sport was considered central to the ‘normalization’ of doping, particularly in bodybuilding. When explaining their decision to dope, athletes engaged in processes or moral disengagement (including advantageous comparison, minimizing consequences and diffusion of responsibility). Ironically, moral arguments were perceived as the most effective deterrents to doping. Findings are discussed in relation to the difficulties in establishing credible deterrents and suggestions for the future development of anti-doping policy.

... read more

Topics: Athletes (52%), Moral disengagement (50%)

3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/14660970.2021.1956477
Scott McLean1, Gemma J. M. Read1, Jason Thompson2, Peter A. Hancock3  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
18 Jul 2021-Soccer & Society
Abstract: Advanced technologies now threaten to surpass human intelligence. This watershed will radically impact the ways we currently play, view, and even understand sport. Artificial intelligence(AI) is progressing rapidly, and it remains a matter of time until the impact on sport is fully realized. Currently in sport, AI is a tool used to assist humans with performance monitoring, supporter and media engagement, and injury prediction, among other functions. This commentary argues that advanced technologies can provide unfair playing advantages resulting in unintended and negative consequences. We assert that now is the time to discuss exactly who is in control of regulating the use of these, potentially game-changing innovations in sport.

... read more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPSYG.2021.673087
Abstract: Background: Doping has been a prominent issue for the sport of athletics in recent years. The endurance disciplines, which currently account for 56% of the global anti-doping rule violations in athletics, appear to be particularly high risk for doping. Objective: Using this high-risk, high-pressure context, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the human impact of doping and anti-doping on "clean" athletes. The secondary aim of the study was to better understand the reasons for, and barriers to, competing "clean" among this group of athletes. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 elite distance runners from the UK to explore: (1) the reasons and motivations for competing clean. (2) Perceptions of the anti-doping system, and experiences of being part of that system. (3) Views on the prevalence and causes of doping and the impact of doping on the lives of clean athletes. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using Reflexive Thematic Analysis. Results: Four major themes were identified: (1) The participants in this study have not been tempted to use prohibited substances or methods; they compete in their sport for the personal satisfaction of seeing how good they can be, rather than in pursuit of winning at all costs. (2) Anti-doping does not currently prevent doping effectively and is not implemented evenly across the globe. (3) Doping was perceived as a major issue and was felt to be borne out of certain sporting cultures in which doping is enabled. (4) Doping has impacted the careers of clean athletes in irreversible ways and presents a continuing challenge to the psychological preparation for competition. Conclusions: Clean athletes suffer negative consequences from both doping and anti-doping. ADOs must collaborate across borders to ensure a more even implementation of anti-doping activities, to facilitate a more level playing field on the global stage. ADOs must also acknowledge the existence of a large group of athletes who would never consider deliberately doping and make anti-doping work for these athletes too.

... read more

Topics: Athletes (54%)

2 Citations


References
  More

46 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155
Jacob Cohen1Institutions (1)
Abstract: One possible reason for the continued neglect of statistical power analysis in research in the behavioral sciences is the inaccessibility of or difficulty with the standard material. A convenient, although not comprehensive, presentation of required sample sizes is provided here. Effect-size indexes and conventional values for these are given for operationally defined small, medium, and large effects. The sample sizes necessary for .80 power to detect effects at these levels are tabled for eight standard statistical tests: (a) the difference between independent means, (b) the significance of a product-moment correlation, (c) the difference between independent rs, (d) the sign test, (e) the difference between independent proportions, (f) chi-square tests for goodness of fit and contingency tables, (g) one-way analysis of variance, and (h) the significance of a multiple or multiple partial correlation.

... read more

Topics: Effect size (58%), Sample size determination (56%), Goodness of fit (55%) ... show more

33,656 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3758/BF03193146
Abstract: G*Power (Erdfelder, Faul, & Buchner, 1996) was designed as a general stand-alone power analysis program for statistical tests commonly used in social and behavioral research. G*Power 3 is a major extension of, and improvement over, the previous versions. It runs on widely used computer platforms (i.e., Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Mac OS X 10.4) and covers many different statistical tests of thet, F, and χ2 test families. In addition, it includes power analyses forz tests and some exact tests. G*Power 3 provides improved effect size calculators and graphic options, supports both distribution-based and design-based input modes, and offers all types of power analyses in which users might be interested. Like its predecessors, G*Power 3 is free.

... read more

Topics: Windows Vista (55%)

30,063 Citations


Book ChapterDOI: 10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60281-6
Shalom H. Schwartz1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter addresses the universals in the content and structure of values, concentrating on the theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries, and its four basic issues: substantive contents of human values; identification of comprehensive set of values; extent to which the meaning of particular values was equivalent for different groups of people; and how the relations among different values was structured. Substantial progress has been made toward resolving each of these issues. Ten motivationally distinct value types that were likely to be recognized within and across cultures and used to form value priorities were identified. Set of value types that was relatively comprehensive, encompassing virtually all the types of values to which individuals attribute at least moderate importance as criteria of evaluation was demonstrated. The evidence from 20 countries was assembled, showing that the meaning of the value types and most of the single values that constitute them was reasonably equivalent across most groups. Two basic dimensions that organize value systems into an integrated motivational structure with consistent value conflicts and compatibilities were discovered. By identifying universal aspects of value content and structure, the chapter has laid the foundations for investigating culture-specific aspects in the future.

... read more

Topics: Values scale (57%), Value (mathematics) (53%), Value type (52%) ... show more

11,145 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1086/266945
Daniel Katz1Institutions (1)
Abstract: At the psychological level the reasons for holding or for changing attitudes are found in the functions they perform for the individual, specifically the functions of adjustment, ego defense, value expression, and knowledge. The conditions necessary to arouse or modify an attitude vary according to the motivational basis of the attitude. Ego-defensive attitudes, for example, can be aroused by threats, appeals to hatred and repressed impulses, and authoritarian suggestion, and can be changed by removal of threat, catharsis, and self-insight. Expressive attitudes are aroused by cues associated with the individual's values and by the need to reassert his self-image and can be changed by showing the appropriateness of the new or modified beliefs to the self-concept. Brain washing is primarily directed at the value-expressive function and operates by controlling all environmental supports of old values. Changing attitudes may involve generalization of change to related areas of belief and feeling. Minimal generalization seems to be the rule among adults; for example, in politics voting for an opposition candidate does not have much effect upon party identification. The author is Professor of Psychology at the University of Michigan, former president of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, and coeditor of Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences and Public Opinion and Propaganda.

... read more

Topics: Opposition (politics) (51%), Public opinion (50%)

2,599 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0883-9026(03)00011-9
Howard E. Aldrich1, Jennifer E. Cliff2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Families and businesses have often been treated as naturally separate institutions, whereas we argue that they are inextricably intertwined. Long-term changes in family composition and in the roles and relations of family members have produced families in North America that are growing smaller and losing many of their previous role relationships. Such transformations in the institution of the family have implications for the emergence of new business opportunities, opportunity recognition, business start-up decisions, and the resource mobilization process. We suggest that entrepreneurship scholars would benefit from a family embeddedness perspective on new venture creation. D 2003 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

... read more

Topics: Entrepreneurship (58%), Embeddedness (54%), Institution (52%)

2,079 Citations