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Journal ArticleDOI

Variable Dose Rates in Realistic Radiation Exposures: Effects on Small Molecule Markers of Ionizing Radiation in the Murine Model

22 May 2023-Radiation research (Radiation Research)-
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors investigate how a range of relevant dose rates affect metabolomic dose reconstruction at potentially lethal radiation exposures (8 Gy in mice) from an initial blast or subsequent fallout exposures compared to zero or sub-lethal exposures (0 or 3 Gy) in the first 2 days, which corresponds to an integral time individuals will reach medical facilities after a radiological emergency.
Abstract: Novel biodosimetry assays for use in preparedness and response to potential malicious attacks or nuclear accidents would ideally provide accurate dose reconstruction independent of the idiosyncrasies of a complex exposure to ionizing radiation. Complex exposures will consist of dose rates spanning the low dose rates (LDR) to very high-dose rates (VHDR) that need to be tested for assay validation. Here, we investigate how a range of relevant dose rates affect metabolomic dose reconstruction at potentially lethal radiation exposures (8 Gy in mice) from an initial blast or subsequent fallout exposures compared to zero or sublethal exposures (0 or 3 Gy in mice) in the first 2 days, which corresponds to an integral time individuals will reach medical facilities after a radiological emergency. Biofluids (urine and serum) were collected from both male and female 9-10-week-old C57BL/6 mice at 1 and 2 days postirradiation (total doses of 0, 3 or 8 Gy) after a VHDR of 7 Gy/s. Additionally, samples were collected after a 2-day exposure consisting of a declining dose rate (1 to 0.004 Gy/min) recapitulating the 7:10 rule-of-thumb time dependency of nuclear fallout. Overall similar perturbations were observed in both urine and serum metabolite concentrations irrespective of sex or dose rate, with the exception of xanthurenic acid in urine (female specific) and taurine in serum (VHDR specific). In urine, we developed identical multiplex metabolite panels (N6,N6,N6-trimethyllysine, carnitine, propionylcarnitine, hexosamine-valine-isoleucine, and taurine) that could identify individuals receiving potentially lethal levels of radiation from the zero or sublethal cohorts with excellent sensitivity and specificity, with creatine increasing model performance at day 1. In serum, individuals receiving a 3 or 8 Gy exposure could be identified from their pre-irradiation samples with excellent sensitivity and specificity, however, due to a lower dose response the 3 vs. 8 Gy groups could not be distinguished from each other. Together with previous results, these data indicate that dose-rate-independent small molecule fingerprints have potential in novel biodosimetry assays.