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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU13030817

Vegan Diet Health Benefits in Metabolic Syndrome.

02 Mar 2021-Nutrients (MDPI AG)-Vol. 13, Iss: 3, pp 817
Abstract: Plant-based diets (PBDs) are increasingly consumed by the Italian population and around the world. In particular, among PBDs, the vegan diet is a food pattern characterized by the exclusion of all animal-origin foods. What drives people to adopt this model are mainly ethical, health and environmental reasons. A vegan diet, if well-balanced and varied, can help in achieving and maintaining an optimal state of health. However, this nutritional approach, if not well-balanced, can cause deficiencies in proteins, ω-3 fatty acids, iron, vitamin D and calcium, zinc, iodine and, above all, vitamin B12. Oral food supplements especially fortified foods are recommended in these cases to restore the nutritional deficiencies. A vegan diet generally reduces the risk of developing chronic non-communicable degenerative diseases, such as metabolic syndrome (MetS) and, in addition, requires fewer natural resources for food production than an omnivorous diet. The aim of this review is to analyze the possible impact of the vegan diet on MetS onset and its treatment.

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Topics: Vegan Diet (76%), Malnutrition (51%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU13169251
18 Aug 2021-Sustainability
Abstract: The threat of zoonoses (i.e., human infectious diseases transmitted from animals) because of industrial animal farming may be receiving less attention in society due to the putative wildlife origin of COVID-19. To identify societal responses to COVID-19 that do address or affect the risk of future zoonoses associated with industrial animal farming, the literature was screened for measures, actions, proposals and attitudes following the guidelines of a scoping review. Forty-one articles with relevant information published between 1 January 2020 and 30 April 2021 were identified directly or indirectly via bibliographies from 138 records retrieved via Google Scholar. Analysis of relevant content revealed ten fields of policy action amongst which biosecurity and change in dietary habits were the dominant topics. Further searches for relevant records within each field of policy action retrieved another eight articles. Identified responses were furthermore classified and evaluated according to groups of societal actors, implying different modes of regulation and governance. Based on the results, a suggested policy strategy is presented for moving away from food production in factory farms and supporting sustainable farming, involving the introduction of a tax on the demand side and subsidies for the development and production of alternative meat.

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Topics: Biosecurity (52%), Sustainable agriculture (50%)

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/D1RA04438A
Wenliang Wu, Yao Hu, Shuguang Zhang, Dongming Liu1  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
01 Jul 2021-RSC Advances
Abstract: Liupao tea (LPT) has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD); however, the effects and mechanism of aged Liupao tea (different storage years) treatment on obesity have not yet been reported. In this study, mice were divided into four groups as follows: the control group fed a normal diet; the model group fed an HFD; and the LPT aged 1 year (1Y) and LPT aged 10 years (10Y) groups receiving an HFD and water extractions from LPTs of different ages for 5 weeks. Our results revealed that aged LPT significantly alleviated HFD-induced obesity symptoms, especially in the 10Y group. Additionally, metabolomic analysis identified 11 common differential metabolites that were partly recovered to normal levels after aged LPT treatment, involved mainly in the metabolic pathways of the citrate cycle, purine metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism. Aged LPT treatment also regulated lipid metabolism-related gene expression in the liver, which decreased the mRNA levels of SREBP-1C/HMGR/FAS involved in de novo lipogenesis and increased the mRNA levels of PPARα, LDLR and LCAT. Our study demonstrated that aged LPT may be used as a potential dietary supplement for improving obesity-related diseases caused by an HFD.

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Topics: Normal diet (54%), Lipid metabolism (52%), Lipogenesis (51%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41430-021-01023-Z
Maximilian Andreas Storz1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Within the last decades, plant-based diets have received increasing interest for their potential benefits to human and environmental health. The concept of plant-based diet, however, varies widely in its definition. Current definitions range from the exclusion of all animal products to diets that include meat, fish, and dairy in varying quantities. Therefore, the main objectives of this review were twofold: (a) to investigate how researchers use the term plant-based diet in nutrition intervention studies and (b) what types of food a plant-based diet may include. Searching two databases, we found that the term "plant-based diet" evokes varying ideas to researchers and clinicians. Fifty percent of the retrieved studies that included a plant-based dietary intervention completely proscribed animal products and used the term plant-based diet interchangeably with a vegan diet. In contrast, an ~33% of trials included dairy products and 20% of dietary interventions emphasized a semi-vegetarian dietary pattern. Based on specific examples, we point out how the usage of the umbrella term "plant-based diet" may cause significant ambiguity. We often encountered incomplete descriptions of plant-based dietary interventions, which makes comparison and reproducibility of studies difficult. As a consequence, we urge others to use the term "plant-based diet" only in conjunction with a detailed dietary description. To facilitate this process, we provide a template of a standardized plant-based intervention reporting checklist. Finally, the present review also highlights the urgent need for a consensus definition of the term plant-based diet and its content.

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Topics: Vegan Diet (57%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU13051623
12 May 2021-Nutrients
Abstract: The way of plant sterols transformation and their benefits for humans is still a question under the massive continuing revision. In fact, there are no receptors for binding with sterols in mammalians. However, possible biotransformation to steroids that can be catalyzed by gastro-intestinal microflora, microbial cells in prebiotics or cytochromes system were repeatedly reported. Some products of sterols metabolization are capable to imitate resident human steroids and compete with them for the binding with corresponding receptors, thus affecting endocrine balance and entire physiology condition. There are also tremendous reports about the natural origination of mammalian steroid hormones in plants and corresponding receptors for their binding. Some investigations and reports warn about anabolic effect of sterols, however, there are many researchers who are reluctant to believe in and have strong opposing arguments. We encounter plant sterols everywhere: in food, in pharmacy, in cosmetics, but still know little about their diverse properties and, hence, their exact impact on our life. Most of our knowledge is limited to their cholesterol-lowering influence and protective effect against cardiovascular disease. However, the world of plant sterols is significantly wider if we consider the thousands of publications released over the past 10 years.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU13082534
24 Jul 2021-Nutrients
Abstract: Metabolic acidosis is a severe complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) which is associated with nefarious impairments such as bone demineralization, muscle wasting, and hormonal alterations, for example, insulin resistance. Whilst it is possible to control this condition with alkali treatment, consisting in the oral administration of sodium citrate or sodium bicarbonate, this type of intervention is not free from side effects. On the contrary, opting for the implementation of a targeted dietetic-nutritional treatment for the control of CKD metabolic acidosis also comes with a range of additional benefits such as lipid profile control, increased vitamins, and antioxidants intake. In our review, we evaluated the main dietary-nutritional regimens useful to counteract metabolic acidosis, such as the Mediterranean diet, the alkaline diet, the low-protein diet, and the vegan low-protein diet, analyzing the potentialities and limits of every dietary-nutritional treatment. Literature data suggest that the Mediterranean and alkaline diets represent a valid nutritional approach in the prevention and correction of metabolic acidosis in CKD early stages, while the low-protein diet and the vegan low-protein diet are more effective in CKD advanced stages. In conclusion, we propose that tailored nutritional approaches should represent a valid therapeutic alternative to counteract metabolic acidosis.

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Topics: Metabolic acidosis (61%), Vegan Diet (54%), Alkaline diet (54%) ... show more

1 Citations


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205 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000133317.49796.0E
13 Jul 2004-Circulation
Abstract: The Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) of the National Cholesterol Education Program issued an evidence-based set of guidelines on cholesterol management in 2001. Since the publication of ATP III, 5 major clinical trials of statin therapy with clinical end points have been published. These trials addressed issues that were not examined in previous clinical trials of cholesterol-lowering therapy. The present document reviews the results of these recent trials and assesses their implications for cholesterol management. Therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC) remain an essential modality in clinical management. The trials confirm the benefit of cholesterol-lowering therapy in high-risk patients and support the ATP III treatment goal of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) <100 mg/dL. They support the inclusion of patients with diabetes in the high-risk category and confirm the benefits of LDL-lowering therapy in these patients. They further confirm that older persons benefit from therapeutic lowering of LDL-C. The major recommendations for modifications to footnote the ATP III treatment algorithm are the following. In high-risk persons, the recommended LDL-C goal is <100 mg/dL, but when risk is very high, an LDL-C goal of <70 mg/dL is a therapeutic option, ie, a reasonable clinical strategy, on the basis of available clinical trial evidence. This therapeutic option extends also to patients at very high risk who have a baseline LDL-C <100 mg/dL. Moreover, when a high-risk patient has high triglycerides or low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), consideration can be given to combining a fibrate or nicotinic acid with an LDL-lowering drug. For moderately high-risk persons (2+ risk factors and 10-year risk 10% to 20%), the recommended LDL-C goal is <130 mg/dL, but an LDL-C goal <100 mg/dL is a therapeutic option on the basis of recent trial evidence. The latter option extends also to moderately high-risk persons with a baseline LDL-C of 100 to 129 mg/dL. When LDL-lowering drug therapy is employed in high-risk or moderately high-risk persons, it is advised that intensity of therapy be sufficient to achieve at least a 30% to 40% reduction in LDL-C levels. Moreover, any person at high risk or moderately high risk who has lifestyle-related risk factors (eg, obesity, physical inactivity, elevated triglycerides, low HDL-C, or metabolic syndrome) is a candidate for TLC to modify these risk factors regardless of LDL-C level. Finally, for people in lower-risk categories, recent clinical trials do not modify the goals and cutpoints of therapy.

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Topics: Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (58%), Clinical trial (55%), JUPITER trial (54%) ... show more

6,824 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31679-8
05 Dec 2015-The Lancet
Abstract: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution. Attributable deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) have been estimated for 79 risks or clusters of risks using the GBD 2010 methods. Risk-outcome pairs meeting explicit evidence criteria were assessed for 188 countries for the period 1990-2013 by age and sex using three inputs: risk exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL). Risks are organised into a hierarchy with blocks of behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks at the first level of the hierarchy. The next level in the hierarchy includes nine clusters of related risks and two individual risks, with more detail provided at levels 3 and 4 of the hierarchy. Compared with GBD 2010, six new risk factors have been added: handwashing practices, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, childhood wasting, childhood stunting, unsafe sex, and low glomerular filtration rate. For most risks, data for exposure were synthesised with a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR 2.0, or spatial-temporal Gaussian process regression. Relative risks were based on meta-regressions of published cohort and intervention studies. Attributable burden for clusters of risks and all risks combined took into account evidence on the mediation of some risks such as high body-mass index (BMI) through other risks such as high systolic blood pressure and high cholesterol. All risks combined account for 57·2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 55·8-58·5) of deaths and 41·6% (40·1-43·0) of DALYs. Risks quantified account for 87·9% (86·5-89·3) of cardiovascular disease DALYs, ranging to a low of 0% for neonatal disorders and neglected tropical diseases and malaria. In terms of global DALYs in 2013, six risks or clusters of risks each caused more than 5% of DALYs: dietary risks accounting for 11·3 million deaths and 241·4 million DALYs, high systolic blood pressure for 10·4 million deaths and 208·1 million DALYs, child and maternal malnutrition for 1·7 million deaths and 176·9 million DALYs, tobacco smoke for 6·1 million deaths and 143·5 million DALYs, air pollution for 5·5 million deaths and 141·5 million DALYs, and high BMI for 4·4 million deaths and 134·0 million DALYs. Risk factor patterns vary across regions and countries and with time. In sub-Saharan Africa, the leading risk factors are child and maternal malnutrition, unsafe sex, and unsafe water, sanitation, and handwashing. In women, in nearly all countries in the Americas, north Africa, and the Middle East, and in many other high-income countries, high BMI is the leading risk factor, with high systolic blood pressure as the leading risk in most of Central and Eastern Europe and south and east Asia. For men, high systolic blood pressure or tobacco use are the leading risks in nearly all high-income countries, in north Africa and the Middle East, Europe, and Asia. For men and women, unsafe sex is the leading risk in a corridor from Kenya to South Africa. Behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks can explain half of global mortality and more than one-third of global DALYs providing many opportunities for prevention. Of the larger risks, the attributable burden of high BMI has increased in the past 23 years. In view of the prominence of behavioural risk factors, behavioural and social science research on interventions for these risks should be strengthened. Many prevention and primary care policy options are available now to act on key risks. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

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Topics: Environmental exposure (55%), Risk assessment (54%), Years of potential life lost (51%) ... show more

4,851 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.4161/OXIM.2.5.9498
Abstract: Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants and are generally involved in defense against ultraviolet radiation or aggression by pathogens. In the last decade, there has been much interest in the potential health benefits of dietary plant polyphenols as antioxidant. Epidemiological studies and associated meta-analyses strongly suggest that long term consumption of diets rich in plant polyphenols offer protection against development of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis and neurodegenerative diseases. Here we present knowledge about the biological effects of plant polyphenols in the context of relevance to human health.

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2,694 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/ARCHINTE.163.4.427
Yong Woo Park1, Shankuan Zhu2, Latha Palaniappan3, Stanley Heshka2  +3 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States.1 Factors associated with an increased risk of developing CHD that tend to cluster in individuals include older age, high blood pressure, a low level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, a high triglyceride level, a high plasma glucose concentration, and obesity.2 These associated risk factors have been called syndrome X,3 the insulin resistance syndrome,4 or the metabolic syndrome.5 The mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome are not fully known; however, resistance to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake seems to modify biochemical responses in a way that predisposes to metabolic risk factors.3,6,7 Insulin resistance is thought to be primarily due to obesity or an inherited genetic defect.8 As the prevalence of obesity increases in the United States, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome may be expected to increase markedly. Estimates of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome have varied substantially in part because of the variability of evaluated populations and of diagnostic criteria.9 The recent Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III) included clinical diagnosis guidelines for the metabolic syndrome.10 Compared with findings from earlier studies3-5 and World Health Organization guidelines, the new ATP III defines criteria readily measured in clinical practice. These consensus-generated guidelines provide the opportunity to assess the overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the US population according to an accepted standard definition. In an initial study, Ford et al11 reported un-adjusted and age-adjusted metabolic syndrome prevalences of 21.8% and 23.7%, respectively, for the US population. The objectives of this study are to examine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by ethnicity, age, body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters), socioeconomic status, and lifestyle factors.

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Topics: Metabolic syndrome (62%), Obesity (55%), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (55%) ... show more

1,875 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE13959
David Tilman1, Michael Clark2Institutions (2)
27 Nov 2014-Nature
Abstract: Diets link environmental and human health. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a global dietary transition in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80 per cent increase in global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to global land clearing. Moreover, these dietary shifts are greatly increasing the incidence of type II diabetes, coronary heart disease and other chronic non-communicable diseases that lower global life expectancies. Alternative diets that offer substantial health benefits could, if widely adopted, reduce global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, reduce land clearing and resultant species extinctions, and help prevent such diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases. The implementation of dietary solutions to the tightly linked diet–environment– health trilemma is a global challenge, and opportunity, of great environmental and public health importance.

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1,677 Citations


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