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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SJBS.2021.02.072

Vermicomposting: A management tool to mitigate solid waste.

04 Mar 2021-Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences (Elsevier)-Vol. 28, Iss: 6, pp 3284-3293
Abstract: Solid waste management is a serious ecological problem in Saudi Arabia due to rapid industrialization, population growth and urbanization. Recycling and sorting are in their infancy in Saudi Arabia and huge amounts of mixed household and industrial wastes are still dumped without any pre-treatment. Solid waste management techniques such as incineration, pyrolysis and gasification have high investment costs. Composting and vermicomposting of solid organic waste have been considered as an economically viable and sustainable waste management technologies. However, wastes often contain pollutants, such as heavy metals that are toxic to decomposer micro-organisms. Thus, heavy metals are a challenge for the successful biological treatments. Waste may also contain a mixture of organic pollutants that certain microbes, such as micro-algae are known to degrade. The present review paper focuses on understanding the role of vermicomposting as a management tool in mitigating solid organic wastes. It is noteworthy to mention that the microbes also play a pivotal role in the degradation process, wherein the enzymes secreted during the process aid in decomposition of complex molecules into simpler compounds. Also, the extracellular polymeric substance secreted by the earthworm under metal stress serves a source of nutrient for the bacteria to flourish. Henceforth the goal of discussion in present review shows the way forward in using vermicomposting as a novel approach in dealing with solid organic waste.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ETI.2021.101903
Jinrong Ju1, Jinrong Ju2, Yali Feng2, Haoran Li1  +6 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: A large amount of organic pollutants-containing waste salt is produced in chemical production process, which is usually filled or deposited without treatment, causing serious environmental pollution and a waste of salt resource. In this work, in order to reduce the emission of toxic and harmful gasses and make full use of the organic matter component in waste salt, pyrolusite was used as an absorbent in the process of high-temperature pyrolysis of waste salt, of which MnO 2 was reduced to MnO while absorbing harmful gasses. The dual effects of roasting to remove organic pollutants from the waste salt and increase manganese leaching efficiency were systematically investigated, and the roasting mechanism and process were explored. Co-recovery of NaCl from organic pollutants-containing waste salt and manganese from pyrolusite ore was achieved. The results indicated that the optimum the removal efficiency of organic matter in the waste salt could be reached 99.45%, the purity of recovered NaCl products was 99.83% and leaching efficiency of 99.62% for manganese under the mass ratio of waste salt to pyrolusite of 8:5, the co-roasting temperature of 650 °C, and the roasting time of 40 min.

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Topics: Pyrolusite (58%), Roasting (57%), Organic matter (53%) ... show more

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S13399-021-01770-W
Abstract: Vermicomposting is used to treat and recycle organic waste to be utilized in agriculture. This project aimed to improve the product of vermicomposting by adding biochar and microalgal biomass to the process. Experiment to vermicompost (60 days) mixed organic waste was carried out preparing 16 different treatments. The best treatment appeared to be the earthworm Eisenia fetida, 6% biochar, and the biomass of the microalgae Navicula sp. amended to the process. The product was mature vermicompost with pH 7, cation exchange capacity 70 cmolc kg−1, and the C:N ratio 9.5. All products were used as seedbeds and tested for the plant growth promotion of the vegetables Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum annuum, and Solanum melongena. The best vermicomposting product increased plant growth, reduced the disease incidence of the leaves, and improved the disease resistance of the seeds the plants produced. Plant vigor index was highest in the best treatment varying between 4600 and 5000 depending on the plant species. For comparison, the lowest values were under 1000. Disease resistance was low for the best treatment (5%–15%) compared to the high values over 60%. The seeds ripened in the experimental plants had acquired resistance against the experimentally inoculated phytopathogen Pythium sp., known to commonly destroy seeds. In the best treatment, more than 90% of the seeds germinated while in all other treatments less than 56% germinated. In conclusion, the vermicomposting using the earthworm Eisenia fetida, 6% biochar, and the biomass of the microalgae Navicula sp. produced seedbed substate that improved the growth of vegetables and suppressed phytopathogens. The seedbed can be used in sustainable agriculture to reduce the use of fertilizers and chemicals.

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Topics: Biochar (56%), Vermicompost (55%), Eisenia fetida (54%) ... show more

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2021.150995
Abstract: Biodiesel production from microalgae has gained significant interest recently due to the growing energy demand and non-renewable nature of petroleum. However, high cost of production and environmental health related issues like excess use of inorganic fertilizers, eutrophication are the major constraints in commercial-scale biodiesel production. Besides this, solid wastes (garden-based) management is also a global concern. In the present study, to overcome these limitations vermicompost extract was tested as nutrient source to enhance growth performance and lipid production from a freshwater microalga (Graesiella emersonii MN877773). Garden wastes were first converted into vermicompost manure and its extract (aerobic and anaerobically digested) was prepared. The efficacy of the extract was then tested in combination with BG11 medium. The mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae in anaerobically digested vermicompost extract at 50:50 combination with BG11 medium enhanced the cell biomass (0.64 g d. wt. L−1) and lipid productivity (3.18 mg L−1 day−1) of microalgae by two times. Moreover, the combination also improved the saturated (methyl palmitate) and monounsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid) content in the test algae. The quality of biodiesel also complies with all the properties of biodiesel standard provided by India, the USA, and Europe except the cold filter plugging property. The combination was also found to improve the cell biomass (0.041 g L−1) as compared to BG11 medium in mass-scale cultivation. Hence, the study proved that G. emersonii grown in media supplemented with garden waste-based vermicompost extract had significant potential for mass-scale biodiesel and bioproduct production.

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Topics: Biodiesel production (59%), Biodiesel (54%), Vermicompost (51%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CHEMOSPHERE.2021.133088
29 Nov 2021-Chemosphere
Abstract: Solid waste generation has rapidly increased due to the worldwide population, urbanization, and industrialization. Solid waste management (SWM) is a significant challenge for a society that arises local issues with global consequences. Thus, solid waste management strategies to recycle waste products are promising practices that positively impact sustainable goals. Several developed countries possess excellent solid waste management strategies to recycle waste products. Developing countries face many challenges, such as municipal solid waste (MSW) sorting and handling due to high population density and economic instability. This mismanagement could further expedite harmful environmental and socioeconomic concerns. This review discusses the current solid waste management and energy recovery production in developing countries; with statistics, this review provides a comprehensive revision on energy recovery technologies such as the thermochemical and biochemical conversion of waste with economic considerations. Furthermore, the paper discusses the challenges of SWM in developing countries, including several immediate actions and future policy recommendations for improving the current status of SWM via harnessing technology. This review has the potential of helping municipalities, government authorities, researchers, and stakeholders working on MSW management to make effective decisions for improved SWM for achieving sustainable development.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MEMBRANES11100782
12 Oct 2021-
Abstract: In parallel to the rapid growth in economic and social activities, there has been an undesirable increase in environmental degradation due to the massively produced and disposed waste. The need to manage waste in a more innovative manner has become an urgent matter. In response to the call for circular economy, some solid wastes can offer plenty of opportunities to be reutilized as raw materials for the fabrication of functional, high-value products. In the context of solid waste-derived polymeric membrane development, this strategy can pave a way to reduce the consumption of conventional feedstock for the production of synthetic polymers and simultaneously to dampen the negative environmental impacts resulting from the improper management of these solid wastes. The review aims to offer a platform for overviewing the potentials of reutilizing solid waste in liquid separation membrane fabrication by covering the important aspects, including waste pretreatment and raw material extraction, membrane fabrication and characterizations, as well as the separation performance evaluation of the resultant membranes. Three major types of waste-derived polymeric raw materials, namely keratin, cellulose, and plastics, are discussed based on the waste origins, limitations in the waste processing, and their conversion into polymeric membranes. With the promising material properties and viability of processing facilities, recycling and reutilization of waste resources for membrane fabrication are deemed to be a promising strategy that can bring about huge benefits in multiple ways, especially to make a step closer to sustainable and green membrane production.

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Topics: Municipal solid waste (55%)

References
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88 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1098/RSTB.2010.0126
Abstract: Food waste in the global food supply chain is reviewed in relation to the prospects for feeding a population of nine billion by 2050. Different definitions of food waste with respect to the complexities of food supply chains (FSCs)are discussed. An international literature review found a dearth of data on food waste and estimates varied widely; those for post-harvest losses of grain in developing countries might be overestimated. As much of the post-harvest loss data for developing countries was collected over 30 years ago, current global losses cannot be quantified. A significant gap exists in the understanding of the food waste implications of the rapid development of ‘BRIC’ economies. The limited data suggest that losses are much higher at the immediate post-harvest stages in developing countries and higher for perishable foods across industrialized and developing economies alike. For affluent economies, post-consumer food waste accounts for the greatest overall losses. To supplement the fragmentary picture and to gain a forward view, interviews were conducted with international FSC experts. The analyses highlighted the scale of the problem, the scope for improved system efficiencies and the challenges of affecting behavioural change to reduce post-consumer waste in affluent populations.

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Topics: Food security (65%), Food systems (63%), Food chain (55%) ... show more

2,042 Citations


Open access
01 Mar 2012-
Abstract: Solid waste management is the one thing just about every city government provides for its residents. While service levels, environmental impacts and costs vary dramatically, solid waste management is arguably the most important municipal service and serves as a prerequisite for other municipal action. As the world hurtles toward its urban future, the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW), one of the most important by-products of an urban lifestyle, is growing even faster than the rate of urbanization. Ten years ago there were 2.9 billion urban residents who generated about 0.64 kg of MSW per person per day (0.68 billion tonnes per year). This report estimates that today these amounts have increased to about 3 billion residents generating 1.2 kg per person per day (1.3 billion tonnes per year). By 2025 this will likely increase to 4.3 billion urban residents generating about 1.42 kg/capita/day of municipal solid waste (2.2 billion tonnes per year).

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Topics: Waste disposal (59%), Waste collection (56%), Bulky waste (55%) ... show more

2,036 Citations


Open accessBook
12 Dec 2018-
Abstract: By 2050, the world is expected to generate 340 billion tons of waste annually, increasing drastically from today’s 201 billion tons What a Waste 20: A Global Snapshot of Solid Waste Management to 2050 aggregates extensive solid waste data at the national and urban levels It estimates and projects waste generation to 2030 and 2050 Beyond the core data metrics from waste generation to disposal, the report provides information on waste management costs, revenues, and tariffs; special wastes; regulations; public communication; administrative and operational models; and the informal sector

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Topics: Waste collection (74%), Waste disposal (74%), Municipal solid waste (67%) ... show more

967 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RSER.2009.07.005
Abstract: The present rate of economic growth is unsustainable without saving of fossil energy like crude oil, natural gas or coal. Thus mankind has to rely on the alternate/renewable energy sources like biomass, hydropower, geothermal energy, wind energy, solar energy, nuclear energy, etc. On the other hand, suitable waste management strategy is another important aspect of sustainable development. The growth of welfare levels in modern society during the past decades has brought about a huge increase in the production of all kinds of commodities, which indirectly generate waste. Plastics have been one of the materials with the fastest growth because of their wide range of applications due to versatility and relatively low cost. Since the duration of life of plastic products is relatively small, there is a vast plastics waste stream that reaches each year to the final recipients creating a serious environmental problem. Again, because disposal of post consumer plastics is increasingly being constrained by legislation and escalating costs, there is considerable demand for alternatives to disposal or land filling. Advanced research in the field of green chemistry could yield biodegradable/green polymers but is too limited at this point of time to substitute the non-biodegradable plastics in different applications. Once standards are developed for degradable plastics they can be used to evaluate the specific formulations of materials which will find best application in this state as regards their performance and use characteristics. Among the alternatives available are source reduction, reuse, recycling, and recovery of the inherent energy value through waste-to-energy incineration and processed fuel applications. Production of liquid fuel would be a better alternative as the calorific value of the plastics is comparable to that of fuels, around 40 MJ/kg. Each of these options potentially reduces waste and conserves natural resources. Plastics recycling, continues to progress with a wide range of old and new technologies. Many research projects have been undertaken on chemical recycling of waste plastics to fuel and monomer. This is also reflected by a number of pilot, demonstration, and commercial plants processing various types of plastic wastes in Germany, Japan, USA, India, and elsewhere. Further investigations are required to enhance the generation of value added products (fuel) with low investments without affecting the environment. The paper reviews the available literature in this field of active research and identifies the gaps that need further attention.

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Topics: Mobile incinerator (58%), Waste-to-energy (56%), Incineration (53%) ... show more

529 Citations


Open accessBook
07 Jan 2008-
Abstract: Renowned playwright George Bernard Shaw once said "The reasonable man adapts himself to the world, the unreasonable one persists in trying to adapt the world to himself. Therefore all progress depends on the unreasonable man." By this definition, some of today's entrepreneurs are decidedly unreasonable--and have even been dubbed crazy. Yet as John Elkington and Pamela Hartigan argue in The Power of Unreasonable People, our very future may hinge on their work. Through vivid stories, the authors identify the highly unconventional entrepreneurs who are solving some of the world's most pressing economic, social, and environmental problems. They also show how these pioneers are disrupting existing industries, value chains, and business models--and in the process creating fast-growing markets around the world. By understanding these entrepreneurs' mindsets and strategies, you gain vital insights into future market opportunities for your own organization. Providing a first-hand, on-the-ground look at a new breed of entrepreneur, this book reveals how apparently unreasonable innovators have built their enterprises, how their work will shape risks and opportunities in the coming years, and what tomorrow's leaders can learn from them. Start investing in, partnering with, and learning from these world-shaping change agents, and you position yourself to not only survive but also thrive in the new business landscape they're helping to define.

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384 Citations


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