Abstract: The small-scale fisheries sector in many Pacific islands is facing increasing challenges in relation to resource availability, economic opportunity, and demographic and social pressure. In particular, intensifying cash-oriented livelihood strategies can exacerbate existing vulnerabilities and threaten food security and resource conservation. In this paper the authors develop a bio-economic model and a quantitative measure of resilience in order to explore the interaction between socio-economic and ecological dynamics, and to analyze the potential role that cooperation and collective arrangements can play in this interaction to maintain the viability of the system. Based on the case of the system known as wantok typically found in the Solomon Islands, numerical examples are used to explore the potential gain that cooperation between fishers can bring in terms of subsistence, profitability and ecological performances, as well as the resilience of the whole system to shocks.
Abstract: In this paper, we survey the literature applying viability theory to the sustainable management of renewable resources. After a refresher on the main concepts of viability theory, we provide a general map of the contributions and next discuss them by area of application, including ecosystems and population biology, climate change, forestry and others. We conclude by pointing out issues that deserve more attention and should be part of a research agenda.
Abstract: Reconciling food security, economic development and biodiversity conservation is a key challenge, especially in the face of the demographic transition characterizing many countries in the world. Fisheries and marine ecosystems constitute a difficult application of this bio-economic challenge. Many experts and scientists advocate an ecosystem approach to manage marine socio-ecosystems for their sustainability and resilience. However, the ways by which to operationalize ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) remain poorly specified. We propose a specific methodological framework—viability modelling—to do so. We show how viability modelling can be applied using four contrasted case-studies: two small-scale fisheries in South America and Pacific and two larger-scale fisheries in Europe and Australia. The four fisheries are analysed using the same modelling framework, structured around a set of common methods, indicators and scenarios. The calibrated models are dynamic, multispecies and multifleet and account for various sources of uncertainty. A multicriteria evaluation is used to assess the scenarios’ outcomes over a long time horizon with different constraints based on ecological, social and economic reference points. Results show to what extent the bio-economic and ecosystem risks associated with the adoption of status quo strategies are relatively high and challenge the implementation of EBFM. In contrast, strategies called ecoviability or co-viability strategies, that aim at satisfying the viability constraints, reduce significantly these ecological and economic risks and promote EBFM. The gains associated with those ecoviability strategies, however, decrease with the intensity of regulations imposed on these fisheries.
Abstract: This study aims to analyze the optimal warehouse layout for agricultural and food collecting centers that help small–medium farms to trade in the short food supply chain, by choosing among longitudinal, transversal, and fishbone layout. The developed model allows for the identification of the warehouse ensuring the least impact through inbound material handling, under both an economic and an environmental perspective. The analysis was carried out by using an analytical model to minimize the travelling time of the goods from picking to delivery area. The model considers the different turnover index from which four hypotheses were formulated to implement the results. The Carbon Footprint (CF) and Management Costs (MCs) were calculated by the picking time performance. Findings: Results show that the optimal warehouse layout can be identified after a careful consideration of the turnover indexes. However, for seasonality, the optimal design might be missed across the seasons. Practical implications: the analysis hereby presented is related to those collecting centers aiming to gather conspicuous amounts of seasonal food.
Abstract: Our paper assesses the effects of environmental income deriving from small-scale capture fishery on household food security in Cambodia. We extend the sustainable livelihood framework to depict the complex relationship between rural livelihood portfolios and food security by (i) distinguishing between in-kind income and cash income from all important household activities, and (ii) considering protein and calorie intake along with anthropometric data to shed light on all four dimensions of food security. The analysis is based on survey data from 600 households in rural Cambodia. Our results underline the importance of fishing for food security across all income quartiles. Furthermore, we establish a positive connection between small-scale capture fishery and child anthropometrics. Against the background of potentially declining fish stocks we find that there are currently hardly any alternatives to fishing for poorer households, who are most dependent on capture fishery. We hence urge policy makers to support livelihood activities that supplement fishing income. This would help to enhance sustainable fish stock management, conserve natural resources and simultaneously prevent growing food insecurity.
Abstract: The management and conservation of the world's oceans require synthesis of spatial data on the distribution and intensity of human activities and the overlap of their impacts on marine ecosystems. We developed an ecosystem-specific, multiscale spatial model to synthesize 17 global data sets of anthropogenic drivers of ecological change for 20 marine ecosystems. Our analysis indicates that no area is unaffected by human influence and that a large fraction (41%) is strongly affected by multiple drivers. However, large areas of relatively little human impact remain, particularly near the poles. The analytical process and resulting maps provide flexible tools for regional and global efforts to allocate conservation resources; to implement ecosystem-based management; and to inform marine spatial planning, education, and basic research.
Abstract: 1. Introduction Fikret Berkes, Johan Colding and Carl Folke Part I. Perspectives on Resilience: 2. Adaptive dancing Lance Gunderson 3. Nature and society through the lens of resilience Iain J. Davidson-Hunt and Fikret Berkes 4. Redundancy and diversity Bobbi Low, Elinor Ostrom, Carl Simon and James Wilson Part II. Building Resilience in Local Management Systems: 5. The strategy of the commons Lars Carlsson 6. Management practices for building adaptive capacity Maria Tengo and Monica Hammer 7. Living with disturbance Johan Colding, Per Olsson and Thomas Elmqvist Part III. Social-ecological Learning and Adaption: 8. Exploring the role of local ecological knowledge in ecosystem management Madhav Gadgil, Per Olsson, Fikret Berkes and Carl Folke 9. Facing the adaptive challenge Kristen Blann, Steve Light and Jo Ann Musumeci 10. Caribou co-management in northern Canada Anne Kendrick Part IV. Cross-scale Institutional Response to Change: 11. Dynamics of social-ecological changes in a lagoon fishery in southern Brazil Cristiana Seixas and Fikret Berkes 12. Keeping ecological resilience afloat in cross-scale turbulence Janis Alcorn, John Bamba, Stefanus Masiun, Ita Natalia and Antoinette Royo 13. Policy transformations in the US Forest Sector, 1970-2000 Ronald L. Trosper 14. Synthesis Carl Folke, Johan Colding and Fikret Berkes.
TL;DR: The concept of resilience is reviewed in terms of definitional issues, the role of vulnerability in resilience discourse and its meaning, and the differences between vulnerability and resilience.
Abstract: The intimate connections between disaster recovery by and the resilience of affected communities have become common features of disaster risk reduction programmes since the adoption of The Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015. Increasing attention is now paid to the capacity of disaster-affected communities to 'bounce back' or to recover with little or no external assistance following a disaster. This highlights the need for a change in the disaster risk reduction work culture, with stronger emphasis being put on resilience rather than just need or vulnerability. However, varied conceptualisations of resilience pose new philosophical challenges. Yet achieving a consensus on the concept remains a test for disaster research and scholarship. This paper reviews the concept in terms of definitional issues, the role of vulnerability in resilience discourse and its meaning, and the differences between vulnerability and resilience. It concludes with some of the more immediately apparent implications of resilience thinking for the way we view and prepare for disasters.
Abstract: The global marine fish catch is approaching its upper limit. The number of overfished populations, as well as the indirect effects of fisheries on marine ecosystems, indicate that management has failed to achieve a principal goal, sustainability. This failure is primarily due to continually increasing harvest rates in response to incessant sociopolitical pressure for greater harvests and the intrinsic uncertainty in predicting the harvest that will cause population collapse. A more holistic approach incorporating interspecific interactions and physical environmental influences would contribute to greater sustainability by reducing the uncertainty in predictions. However, transforming the management process to reduce the influence of pressure for greater harvest holds more immediate promise.
Abstract: Coral reefs are one of the most biologically diverse habitats in the world, host to an extraordinary variety of marine plants and animals. They are also one of the world's most fragile and endangered ecosystems. The growth of mass tourism, combined with the boom in popularity of scuba diving, has brought these spectacular ecosystems to public attention across the planet. Coral reefs provide essential fish habitat, support endangered and threatened species, and harbor protected marine mammals and turtles. They are a significant source of food, provide income and employment through tourism and marine recreation, and offer countless other benefits to humans, including supplying compounds for pharmaceuticals. Yet coral reefs around the world are rapidly being degraded by a number of human activities, such as overfishing, coastal development, and the introduction of sewage, fertilizer, and sediment. World Atlas of Coral Reefs provides the first detailed and definitive account of the current state of our planet's coral reefs. With its wealth of authoritative and up-to-date information, the finest maps available, and detailed descriptive texts and images by leading experts, this full-color volume will be a critical resource for anyone interested in these vital environments. World Atlas of Coral Reefs contains eighty-four full-page newly researched and drawn color maps, together with more than two hundred color photos illustrating reefs, reef animals, and images taken from space by NASA astronauts during the 2000 and 2001 space shuttle flights. The authors provide a wealth of information on the geography, biodiversity, and human uses of coral reefs, as well as details about the threats to their existence. Prepared at the UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre in Cambridge, England--the United Nations office responsible for providing authoritative information on the condition of global biodiversity--the Atlas will be a critical tool for scientists, students, policymakers, and planners at local, national, and international levels alike. Publication of the World Atlas of Coral Reefs is supported by international institutions including the United Nations Environment Programme; The Marine Aquarium Council, The International Coral Reef Initiative; ICLARM--The World Fish Center; the Professional Association of Diving Instructors, and the Aventis Foundation.