scispace - formally typeset
Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/00224545.2020.1784826

Viewing nature scenes reduces the pain of social ostracism.

04 Mar 2021-Journal of Social Psychology (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD)-Vol. 161, Iss: 2, pp 197-215
Abstract: In a series of four studies (Ns = 245, 135, 155, 222), we explored the effects of viewing nature scenes on promoting recovery from ostracism. We first manipulated experiences of ostracism, then randomly assigned participants to view photos of either nature, urban scenes, or neutral objects. Across all four studies, participants who viewed nature photos reported significantly lower levels of state social pain, along with significantly higher levels of affect balance and self-esteem. Moreover, when asked to look back and recall how they felt at the time of being ostracized, participants who viewed nature photos reported significantly higher levels of retrospective satisfaction of basic emotional needs than did participants in control conditions. An internal meta-analysis revealed an effect size of d = 0.58. These studies are the first, to our knowledge, to provide experimental evidence of how exposure to nature can alleviate the pain of social ostracism.

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Topics: Ostracism (55%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2020.143984
Abstract: There is growing evidence that ecosystem services and especially the exposure to the natural world (blue-green spaces) have potential benefits for mental health and well-being. The COVID-19 pandemic and the measures adopted to control it provide a natural experiment to investigate the links between nature exposure and mental health under extreme conditions. Using a survey distributed online, we tested the following hypotheses: 1) People will show greater symptoms of depression and anxiety under lockdown conditions that did not allow contact with outdoor nature spaces; 2) Where access to public outdoor nature spaces was strictly restricted, (2a) those with green/blue nature view or (2b) access to private outdoor spaces such as a garden or balcony will show fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety, and a more positive mood. Based on 5218 responses from 9 countries, we found that lockdown severity significantly affected mental health, while contact with nature helped people to cope with these impacts, especially for those under strict lockdown. People under strict lockdown in Spain (3403 responses), perceived that nature helped them to cope with lockdown measures; and emotions were more positive among individuals with accessible outdoor spaces and blue-green elements in their views. These findings can help decision-makers in developing potential future lockdown measures to mitigate the negative impacts, helping people to be more resilient and maintain better mental health, using the benefits that ecosystem services are providing us.

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Topics: Mental health (53%)

76 Citations


Open accessBook ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-69020-5_5
Terry Hartig1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 2021-
Abstract: The restoration perspective on human adaptation offers a broad view of relations between environment and health; however, it remains underutilized as a source of insight for nature-and-health studies. In this chapter, I start from the restoration perspective in showing ways to extend theory and research concerned with the benefits of nature experience. I first set out the basic premises of the restoration perspective and consider how it has come to have particular relevance for understanding the salutary values now commonly assigned to nature experience. I then discuss the currently conventional theoretical narrative about restorative effects of nature experience and organize some of its components in a general framework for restorative environments theory. Extending the framework, I put forward two additional theories. These call attention to the restoration of resources as held within closer relationships and as held collectively by members of a population. In closing, I consider ways to work with the general framework and further develop the narrative about nature, restoration, and health. The extensions made here raise important considerations for nature preservation efforts, urban planning, health promotion strategies, and ways of thinking about human–nature relations.

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Topics: Population (52%)

4 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JHTM.2021.01.012
Mert Gürlek1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This research aims to investigate the effect of workplace ostracism on counterproductive work behavior (CWB) and the moderating role of acculturation in this respect. The relationships between variables are analyzed through structural equation modeling. The data are collected from Syrian migrant workers in the restaurant industry in Istanbul, Turkey (n = 392), and the results indicate that workplace ostracism has a positive effect on CWB. Besides, acculturation plays a moderator role in the effect of workplace ostracism on CWB. In this regard, acculturation differentiates the relationship between the two variables. The present study contributes to the related theory by revealing that workplace ostracism drives less CWB among Syrians adopting the host culture and more of it among those maintaining the origin culture.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPUBH.2021.646568
Aline Lenaerts1, Sofie Heyman1, Annelies De Decker, Laura Lauwers1  +4 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Visiting nature is positively associated with physical and mental well-being. The role of nature became more pronounced during the coronavirus outbreak in the spring of 2020. Countries all over the world implemented confinement measures to reduce the transmission of the virus. These included but were not limited to the cancelation of public events, schools, and non-essential businesses and the prohibition of non-essential travels. However, going outside to exercise was recommended by the Belgian government. During this period, we conducted an online survey to determine if people visit nature more frequently than before and to identify the factors that contribute to this. The results are based on data from 11,352 participants in Flanders, Belgium. With the use of a bivariate and multiple regression analysis, results indicate that people visit nature more frequently than before and that nature helped to maintain social relationships during the coronavirus period. Gardens were reported to be the most popular place, followed by parks. More than half of the people experienced nature in a more positive way, and the belief that nature visits are important for general health increased. In addition, we found a positive association between nature visits and home satisfaction, as well as a positive association with subjective mental and physical health. Lastly, we identified several demographic factors contributing to the frequency of nature visits such as age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Our findings indicate the importance of nature visits for general well-being and highlight the need for nearby green infrastructure.

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Topics: Mental health (51%)

1 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.10.15.21264908
18 Oct 2021-medRxiv
Abstract: Background: Nature-based social prescribing programmes such as "bluespace prescription" may promote public health and health improvement of individuals with long-term conditions. However, there is limited systematically synthesised evidence that investigates the contexts and mechanisms of Bluespace Prescription Programmes (BPPs) that could inform programme theories for policy and practice. Methods: We conducted a realist review by searching six databases for articles published between January 2000 and February 2020, in English, about health and social care professionals providing referral to or prescription of blue space activities with health-related outcomes. We developed themes of contextual factors by analysing the contexts of BPPs. We used these contextual factors to develop programme theories describing the mechanisms of BPP implementation. Our study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020170660). Results: Fifteen studies with adequate to strong quality were included from 6,736 records. Service users had improvements on their physical, mental, social health, and environmental knowledge after participating in BPPs referred to or prescribed by health and social care professionals. Patient-related contextual factors were referral information, free equipment and transportation, social support, blue space environments, and skills of service providers. Intervention-related contextual factors were communication, multi-stakeholder collaboration, financing, and adequate service providers. Programme theories on patient enrolment, engagement, adherence, communication protocols, and long-term programme sustainability described the mechanisms of BPP implementation. Conclusion: BPPs could support health and social care services if contextual factors influencing patients and intervention delivery are considered for implementation. Our findings have implications in planning, development, and implementation of similar nature-based social prescribing programmes in health and social care settings. Keywords: sustainable healthcare, social prescribing, blue spaces, bluespace prescriptions

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Topics: Health care (61%), Social determinants of health (59%), Social support (54%) ... read more

References
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65 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/BMJ.327.7414.557
04 Sep 2003-BMJ
Abstract: Cochrane Reviews have recently started including the quantity I 2 to help readers assess the consistency of the results of studies in meta-analyses. What does this new quantity mean, and why is assessment of heterogeneity so important to clinical practice? Systematic reviews and meta-analyses can provide convincing and reliable evidence relevant to many aspects of medicine and health care.1 Their value is especially clear when the results of the studies they include show clinically important effects of similar magnitude. However, the conclusions are less clear when the included studies have differing results. In an attempt to establish whether studies are consistent, reports of meta-analyses commonly present a statistical test of heterogeneity. The test seeks to determine whether there are genuine differences underlying the results of the studies (heterogeneity), or whether the variation in findings is compatible with chance alone (homogeneity). However, the test is susceptible to the number of trials included in the meta-analysis. We have developed a new quantity, I 2, which we believe gives a better measure of the consistency between trials in a meta-analysis. Assessment of the consistency of effects across studies is an essential part of meta-analysis. Unless we know how consistent the results of studies are, we cannot determine the generalisability of the findings of the meta-analysis. Indeed, several hierarchical systems for grading evidence state that the results of studies must be consistent or homogeneous to obtain the highest grading.2–4 Tests for heterogeneity are commonly used to decide on methods for combining studies and for concluding consistency or inconsistency of findings.5 6 But what does the test achieve in practice, and how should the resulting P values be interpreted? A test for heterogeneity examines the null hypothesis that all studies are evaluating the same effect. The usual test statistic …

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Topics: Study heterogeneity (62%), Systematic review (54%), Meta-analysis (53%) ... read more

37,135 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063
Abstract: In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented.

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Topics: Discriminant validity (57%), Affect measures (56%), Affect (psychology) (54%) ... read more

31,021 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497
Roy F. Baumeister1, Mark R. LearyInstitutions (1)
Abstract: A hypothesized need to form and maintain strong, stable interpersonal relationships is evaluated in light of the empirical literature. The need is for frequent, nonaversive interactions within an ongoing relational bond. Consistent with the belongingness hypothesis, people form social attachments readily under most conditions and resist the dissolution of existing bonds. Belongingness appears to have multiple and strong effects on emotional patterns and on cognitive processes. Lack of attachments is linked to a variety of ill effects on health, adjustment, and well-being. Other evidence, such as that concerning satiation, substitution, and behavioral consequences, is likewise consistent with the hypothesized motivation. Several seeming counterexamples turned out not to disconfirm the hypothesis. Existing evidence supports the hypothesis that the need to belong is a powerful, fundamental, and extremely pervasive motivation.

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Topics: Belongingness (61%), Need for affiliation (53%), Sociometer (52%)

15,561 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/003803856900300250
01 May 1969-Sociology

14,993 Citations


Open accessBook
01 Jan 1890-
Abstract: Arguably the greatest single work in the history of psychology. James's analyses of habit, the nature of emotion, the phenomenology of attention, the stream of thought, the perception of space, and the multiplicity of the consciousness of self are still widely cited and incorporated into contemporary theoretical accounts of these phenomena.

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Topics: Consciousness (53%), History of psychology (50%)

14,041 Citations


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