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Journal ArticleDOI

Viper venom-induced inflammation and inhibition of free radical formation by pure compound (2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid) isolated and purified from anantamul (Hemidesmus indicus R.Br) root extract

01 Jan 1998-Toxicon (Toxicon)-Vol. 36, Iss: 1, pp 207-215

TL;DR: The present investigation explored the possible venom neutralizing effect of a pure compound isolated and purified from the methanolic root extract of Hemidesmus indicus R.Rr.

AbstractThe present investigation explored the possible venom neutralizing effect of a pure compound (2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid) isolated and purified from the methanolic root extract of Hemidesmus indicus R.Rr. 2-OH-4-MeO benzoic acid possessed potent anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antioxidant properties. The compound effectively neutralized inflammation induced by Vipera russelli venom in male albino mice and reduced cotton pellet-induced granuloma in rats. The compound produced a significant fall in body temperature in yeast-induced pyrexia in rats but did not change the normothermic body temperature. The compound effectively neutralized viper venom-induced changes in serum phosphatase and transaminase activity in male albino rats. It also neutralized free radical formation as estimated by TBAPS and superoxide dismutase activities. The antisnake venom activity of the pure compound is partly mediated through the above physiological process.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India, and a list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of Diabetes is compiled.
Abstract: Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world's population. This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum and Withania somnifera. One of the etiologic factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals and hence an antidiabetic compound with antioxidant properties would be more beneficial. Therefore information on antioxidant effects of these medicinal plants is also included.

745 citations


Cites background from "Viper venom-induced inflammation an..."

  • ...Many recent studies reveal that antioxidants capable of neutralizing free radicals are effective in preventing experimentally induced diabetes in animal models [9, 10] as well as reducing the severity of diabetic complications [8]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Protective activity of plants-Aristolochia indica, Hemidesmus indicus, Gloriosa superba, Strychnos nux-vomica, Eclipta prostrata, and Andrographis paniculata against the lethal action of snake venom and need further investigation.
Abstract: Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted in four different indigenous groups in Southern parts of Tamilnadu, India, using a questionnaire. The herbal practitioners in the study area were interviewed, and information on medicinal plants was collected from the traditional healers called “Vaidyars”. This survey covers 72 medicinal plants belonging to 53 families that are used for the treatment of snakebite in a traditional way. Traditional approach was evaluated scientifically with some selected plant extracts (7.2 mg/kg bw) and partially purified fractions (2.4 mg/kg bw) were orally administered to mice experimentally envenomed with rattlesnake venom s.c. injection (2.5–15 μg/kg bw). Tested fractions ( Aristolochia indica , Hemidesmus indicus , Gloriosa superba , Strychnos nux-vomica , Eclipta prostrata , and Andrographis paniculata ) showed potent neutralizing effect against the venom. Compared to the extracts, administration of purified fractions was more effective in increasing the body weight. Control mice injected with the venom alone showed weight loss and severe toxicity at 15 μg/kg bw. The purified fractions (2.4 mg/kg bw) produced significant protection against venom induced changes in serum SOD and LPx levels. The isolated fractions effectively inhibited the toxic effect of snake venoms in vitro than in vivo. The above observations confirmed the protective activity of plants— Aristolochia indica , Hemidesmus indicus , Gloriosa superba , Strychnos nux-vomica , Eclipta prostrata , and Andrographis paniculata against the lethal action of snake venom and need further investigation.

243 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The methanolic root extracts of Vitex negundo Linn.
Abstract: The methanolic root extracts of Vitex negundo Linn. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. were explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (V. negundo and E. officinalis) extracts significantly antagonized the Vipera russellii and Naja kaouthia venom induced lethal activity both in in vitro and in vivo studies. V. russellii venom-induced haemorrhage, coagulant, defibrinogenating and inflammatory activity was significantly neutralized by both plant extracts. No precipitating bands were observed between the plant extract and snake venom. The above observations confirmed that the plant extracts possess potent snake venom neutralizing capacity and need further investigation.

202 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 2005-Toxicon
TL;DR: The pure compound potentiated the ability of the commercial equine polyvalent antivenom in neutralizing lethal and myotoxic effects of the crude venom and of isolated PLA2s in experimental models.
Abstract: Many plants are used in traditional medicine as active agents against various effects induced by snakebite. The methanolic extract from Cordia verbenacea (Cv) significantly inhibited paw edema induced by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom and by its main basic phospholipase A2 homologs, namely bothropstoxins I and II (BthTXs). The active component was isolated by chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and by RP-HPLC on a C18 column and identified as rosmarinic acid (Cv-RA). Rosmarinic acid is an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid [2-O-cafeoil-3-(3,4-di-hydroxy-phenyl)-R-lactic acid]. This is the first report of RA in the species C. verbenacea (‘baleeira’, ‘whaler’) and of its anti-inflammatory and antimyotoxic properties against snake venoms and isolated toxins. RA inhibited the edema and myotoxic activity induced by the basic PLA2s BthTX-I and BthTX-II. It was, however, less efficient to inhibit the PLA2 activity of BthTX-II and, still less, the PLA2 and edema-inducing activities of the acidic isoform BthA-I-PLA2 from the same venom, showing therefore a higher inhibitory activity upon basic PLA2s. RA also inhibited most of the myotoxic and partially the edema-inducing effects of both basic PLA2s, thus reinforcing the idea of dissociation between the catalytic and pharmacological domains. The pure compound potentiated the ability of the commercial equine polyvalent antivenom in neutralizing lethal and myotoxic effects of the crude venom and of isolated PLA2s in experimental models. CD data presented here suggest that, after binding, no significant conformation changes occur either in the Cv-RA or in the target PLA2. A possible model for the interaction of rosmarinic acid with Lys49-PLA2 BthTX-I is proposed.

166 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The present review has been focussed on the varied folk and traditional herbs and their antisnake venom compounds, which might be a stepping stone in establishing the future therapy against snake bite treatment and management.
Abstract: Snake bite, a major socio-medical problem of south east asian countries is still depending on the usage of antisera as the one and only source of treatment, which has its own limitations. In India, mostly in rural areas, health centres are inadequate and the snake bite victims mostly depend on traditional healers and herbal antidotes, as an alternative treatment. The present review has been focussed on the varied folk and traditional herbs and their antisnake venom compounds, which might be a stepping stone in establishing the future therapy against snake bite treatment and management.

133 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The staining procedure for localizing superoxide dismutase on polyacrylamide electrophoretograms has been applied to extracts obtained from a variety of sources and could thus be assayed either in crude extracts or in purified protein fractions.
Abstract: Nitro blue tetrazolium has been used to intercept O2− generated enzymically or photochemically. The reduction of NBT by O2− has been utilized as the basis of assays for superoxide dismutase, which exposes its presence by inhibiting the reduction of NBT. Superoxide dismutase could thus be assayed either in crude extracts or in purified protein fractions. The assays described are sensitive to ng/ml levels of super-oxide dismutase and were applicable in free solution or on polyacrylamide gels. The staining procedure for localizing superoxide dismutase on polyacrylamide electrophoretograms has been applied to extracts obtained from a variety of sources. E. coli has been found to contain two superoxide dismutases whereas bovine heart, brain, lung, and erthrocytes contain only one.

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5,432 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
B. Havsteen1
TL;DR: The few existing reports on the careful pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic and clinical studies which have been made have been summarized to provide a basis for a full-scale investigation of the therapeutic potential of flavonoids.
Abstract: A review has been presented of the biochemistry and pharmacology of a class of natural products, the flavonoids. These substances which are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and present in considerable quantities in common food products, spices and beverages have in a concentrated form (Propolis) been used since ancient times by physicians and laymen to treat a great variety of human diseases but they have yet to pass the tests of modern, controlled, clinical experimentation. An attempt has been made to present the fundamental evidence from the basic biological sciences which is required to stimulate the interest of the clinicians in this new field. The few existing reports on the careful pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic and clinical studies which have been made have been summarized to provide a basis for a full-scale investigation of the therapeutic potential of flavonoids.

1,558 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
29 Mar 1979-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown that similar events occur in the guinea pig perfused lung before inhibition by steroids of phospholipase A2 activity (and thus TXA2 generation), and a steroid-induced factor is discovered which mimics the anti-phospholipases effects of these anti-inflammatory agents.
Abstract: ASPIRIN prevents prostaglandin (PG) generation by directly inhibiting the cyclo-oxygenase enzyme responsible for PG biosynthesis1–3. In addition, there is now conclusive evidence that anti-inflammatory steroids can also prevent PG generation4–13. Unlike the aspirin-like drugs, steroids have no anti-cyclo-oxygenase activity but exert their action by preventing the release from phospholipids of the fatty acid substrates required for PG biosynthesis4–9,12,13. We have shown that stimulation of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) release by agents such as histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and rabbit aorta contracting substance-releasing factor (RCS–RF) (but not arachidonic acid) is inhibited by anti-inflammatory steroids, and that their potency in this action closely parallels their anti-inflammatory activity12,13. Furthermore, their mechanism of action involves the inhibition of phospholipase A2 activity, and thus of arachidonate release within the lung12,13. In several other tissues, the mechanism of steroid hormone action depends on the combination of thesteroid with a cytosolic receptor protein, the translocation of this drug–receptor complex to the nucleus and the initiation of protein biosynthesis14–16. We now show that similar events occur in the guinea pig perfused lung before inhibition by steroids of phospholipase A2 activity (and thus TXA2 generation). We have discovered a steroid-induced factor which mimics the anti-phospholipase effects of these anti-inflammatory agents.

873 citations