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Virufy: A Multi-Branch Deep Learning Network for Automated Detection of COVID-19

02 Mar 2021-arXiv: Sound-
Abstract: Fast and affordable solutions for COVID-19 testing are necessary to contain the spread of the global pandemic and help relieve the burden on medical facilities. Currently, limited testing locations and expensive equipment pose difficulties for individuals trying to be tested, especially in low-resource settings. Researchers have successfully presented models for detecting COVID-19 infection status using audio samples recorded in clinical settings [5, 15], suggesting that audio-based Artificial Intelligence models can be used to identify COVID-19. Such models have the potential to be deployed on smartphones for fast, widespread, and low-resource testing. However, while previous studies have trained models on cleaned audio samples collected mainly from clinical settings, audio samples collected from average smartphones may yield suboptimal quality data that is different from the clean data that models were trained on. This discrepancy may add a bias that affects COVID-19 status predictions. To tackle this issue, we propose a multi-branch deep learning network that is trained and tested on crowdsourced data where most of the data has not been manually processed and cleaned. Furthermore, the model achieves state-of-art results for the COUGHVID dataset [16]. After breaking down results for each category, we have shown an AUC of 0.99 for audio samples with COVID-19 positive labels.

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Topics: Data quality (52%)

6 results found

Open accessPosted Content
01 Oct 2021-arXiv: Learning
Abstract: The objectives of this research are analysing the performance of the state-of-the-art machine learning techniques for classifying COVID-19 from cough sound and identifying the model(s) that consistently perform well across different cough datasets. Different performance evaluation metrics (such as precision, sensitivity, specificity, AUC, accuracy, etc.) make it difficult to select the best performance model. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose an ensemble-based multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method for selecting top performance machine learning technique(s) for COVID-19 cough classification. We use four cough datasets, namely Cambridge, Coswara, Virufy, and NoCoCoDa to verify the proposed method. At first, our proposed method uses the audio features of cough samples and then applies machine learning (ML) techniques to classify them as COVID-19 or non-COVID-19. Then, we consider a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method that combines ensemble technologies (i.e., soft and hard) to select the best model. In MCDM, we use the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) for ranking purposes, while entropy is applied to calculate evaluation criteria weights. In addition, we apply the feature reduction process through recursive feature elimination with cross-validation under different estimators. The results of our empirical evaluations show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art models.

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2 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AEJ.2021.08.070
Abstract: Since the outbreak of COVID-19, many efforts have been made to utilize the respiratory sounds and coughs collected by smartphones for training Machine Learning models to classify and distinguish COVID-19 sounds from healthy ones. Embedding those models into mobile applications or Internet of things devices can make effective COVID-19 pre-screening tools afforded by anyone anywhere. Most of the previous researchers trained their classifiers with respiratory sounds such as breathing or coughs, and they achieved promising results. We claim that using special voice patterns besides other respiratory sounds can achieve better performance. In this study, we used the Coswara dataset where each user has recorded 9 different types of sounds as cough, breathing, and speech labeled with COVID-19 status. A combination of models trained on different sounds can diagnose COVID-19 more accurately than a single model trained on cough or breathing only. Our results show that using simple binary classifiers can achieve an AUC of 96.4% and an accuracy of 96% by averaging the predictions of multiple models trained and evaluated separately on different sound types. Finally, this study aims to draw attention to the importance of the human voice alongside other respiratory sounds for the sound-based COVID-19 diagnosis.

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Topics: Respiratory sounds (54%), Human voice (50%)

1 Citations

Open accessPosted Content
12 Oct 2021-arXiv: Sound
Abstract: With the periodic rise and fall of COVID-19 and countries being inflicted by its waves, an efficient, economic, and effortless diagnosis procedure for the virus has been the utmost need of the hour. COVID-19 positive individuals may even be asymptomatic making the diagnosis difficult, but amongst the infected subjects, the asymptomatic ones need not be entirely free of symptoms caused by the virus. They might not show any observable symptoms like the symptomatic subjects, but they may differ from uninfected ones in the way they cough. These differences in the coughing sounds are minute and indiscernible to the human ear, however, these can be captured using machine learning-based statistical models. In this paper, we present a deep learning approach to analyze the acoustic dataset provided in Track 1 of the DiCOVA 2021 Challenge containing cough sound recordings belonging to both COVID-19 positive and negative examples. To perform the classification on the sound recordings as belonging to a COVID-19 positive or negative examples, we propose a ConvNet model. Our model achieved an AUC score percentage of 72.23 on the blind test set provided by the same for an unbiased evaluation of the models. The ConvNet model incorporated with Data Augmentation further increased the AUC-ROC percentage from 72.23 to 87.07. It also outperformed the DiCOVA 2021 Challenge's baseline model by 23% thus, claiming the top position on the DiCOVA 2021 Challenge leaderboard. This paper proposes the use of Mel frequency cepstral coefficients as the feature input for the proposed model.

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1 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11760-021-01991-6
Bejoy Abraham, Madhu S. Nair1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic which is spreading briskly across the globe. The gold standard for the diagnosis of COVID-19 is viral nucleic acid detection with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). However, the sensitivity of RT-PCR in the diagnosis of early-stage COVID-19 is less. Recent research works have shown that computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest are effective for the early diagnosis of COVID-19. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are proven successful for diagnosing various lung diseases from CT scans. CNNs are composed of multiple layers which represent a hierarchy of features at each level. CNNs require a big number of labeled instances for training from scratch. In medical imaging tasks like the detection of COVID-19 where there is a difficulty in acquiring a large number of labeled CT scans, pre-trained CNNs trained on a huge number of natural images can be employed for extracting features. Feature representation of each CNN varies and an ensemble of features generated from various pre-trained CNNs can increase the diagnosis capability significantly. In this paper, features extracted from an ensemble of 5 different CNNs (MobilenetV2, Shufflenet, Xception, Darknet53 and EfficientnetB0) in combination with kernel support vector machine is used for the diagnosis of COVID-19 from CT scans. The method was tested using a public dataset and it attained an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.963, accuracy of 0.916, kappa score of 0.8305, F-score of 0.91, sensitivity of 0.917 and positive predictive value of 0.904 in the prediction of COVID-19.

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Book ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-86271-8_48
22 Sep 2021-
Abstract: The emergence of the COVID-19 virus has placed the planet before one of the worst pandemics in 100 years. Early detection of the virus and vaccination have become the main weapons in the fight against the virus. In terms of detection, numerous alternatives have been proposed over the last one and a half years, including the use of artificial intelligence techniques. In this paper we propose the use of such techniques for virus detection using cough. The development of a low-cost device that incorporates the classification model has been proposed, facilitating its use anywhere without the need for connectivity.

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16 results found

Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/CVPR.2016.90
Kaiming He1, Xiangyu Zhang1, Shaoqing Ren1, Jian Sun1Institutions (1)
27 Jun 2016-
Abstract: Deeper neural networks are more difficult to train. We present a residual learning framework to ease the training of networks that are substantially deeper than those used previously. We explicitly reformulate the layers as learning residual functions with reference to the layer inputs, instead of learning unreferenced functions. We provide comprehensive empirical evidence showing that these residual networks are easier to optimize, and can gain accuracy from considerably increased depth. On the ImageNet dataset we evaluate residual nets with a depth of up to 152 layers—8× deeper than VGG nets [40] but still having lower complexity. An ensemble of these residual nets achieves 3.57% error on the ImageNet test set. This result won the 1st place on the ILSVRC 2015 classification task. We also present analysis on CIFAR-10 with 100 and 1000 layers. The depth of representations is of central importance for many visual recognition tasks. Solely due to our extremely deep representations, we obtain a 28% relative improvement on the COCO object detection dataset. Deep residual nets are foundations of our submissions to ILSVRC & COCO 2015 competitions1, where we also won the 1st places on the tasks of ImageNet detection, ImageNet localization, COCO detection, and COCO segmentation.

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Topics: Deep learning (53%), Residual (53%), Convolutional neural network (53%) ... show more

93,356 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30120-1
Ensheng Dong1, Hongru Du1, Lauren Gardner1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has induced a considerable degree of fear, emotional stress and anxiety among individuals around t

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Topics: Dashboard (business) (62%), Web application (53%)

5,397 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACSNANO.0C02624
30 Mar 2020-ACS Nano
Abstract: COVID-19 has spread globally since its discovery in Hubei province, China in December 2019. A combination of computed tomography imaging, whole genome sequencing, and electron microscopy were initially used to screen and identify SARS-CoV-2, the viral etiology of COVID-19. The aim of this review article is to inform the audience of diagnostic and surveillance technologies for SARS-CoV-2 and their performance characteristics. We describe point-of-care diagnostics that are on the horizon and encourage academics to advance their technologies beyond conception. Developing plug-and-play diagnostics to manage the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak would be useful in preventing future epidemics.

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857 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0234765
Michael C. Grant1, Luke Geoghegan2, Marc Arbyn, Zakaria Mohammed3  +5 moreInstitutions (5)
23 Jun 2020-PLOS ONE
Abstract: Background To limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2, an evidence-based understanding of the symptoms is critical to inform guidelines for quarantining and testing. The most common features are purported to be fever and a new persistent cough, although the global prevalence of these symptoms remains unclear. The aim of this systematic review is to determine the prevalence of symptoms associated with COVID-19 worldwide. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, AMED, medRxiv and bioRxiv on 5th April 2020 for studies of adults (>16 years) with laboratory test confirmed COVID-19. No language or publication status restrictions were applied. Data were independently extracted by two review authors into standardised forms. All datapoints were independently checked by three other review authors. A random-effects model for pooling of binomial data was applied to estimate the prevalence of symptoms, subgrouping estimates by country. I2 was used to assess inter-study heterogeneity. Results Of 851 unique citations, 148 articles were included which comprised 24,410 adults with confirmed COVID-19 from 9 countries. The most prevalent symptoms were fever (78% [95% CI 75%-81%]; 138 studies, 21,701 patients; I2 94%), a cough (57% [95% CI 54%-60%]; 138 studies, 21,682 patients; I2 94%) and fatigue (31% [95% CI 27%-35%]; 78 studies, 13,385 patients; I2 95%). Overall, 19% of hospitalised patients required non-invasive ventilation (44 studies, 6,513 patients), 17% required intensive care (33 studies, 7504 patients), 9% required invasive ventilation (45 studies, 6933 patients) and 2% required extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (12 studies, 1,486 patients). The mortality rate was 7% (73 studies, 10,402 patients). Conclusions We confirm that fever and cough are the most prevalent symptoms of adults infected by SARS-CoV-2. However, there is a large proportion of infected adults which symptoms-alone do not identify.

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Topics: Intensive care (53%), Meta-analysis (51%), Mortality rate (51%)

267 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IMU.2020.100378
Ali Imran1, Iryna Posokhova2, Haneya Naeem Qureshi1, Usama Masood1  +5 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Background The inability to test at scale has become humanity's Achille's heel in the ongoing war against the COVID-19 pandemic. A scalable screening tool would be a game changer. Building on the prior work on cough-based diagnosis of respiratory diseases, we propose, develop and test an Artificial Intelligence (AI)-powered screening solution for COVID-19 infection that is deployable via a smartphone app. The app, named AI4COVID-19 records and sends three 3-s cough sounds to an AI engine running in the cloud, and returns a result within 2 min. Methods Cough is a symptom of over thirty non-COVID-19 related medical conditions. This makes the diagnosis of a COVID-19 infection by cough alone an extremely challenging multidisciplinary problem. We address this problem by investigating the distinctness of pathomorphological alterations in the respiratory system induced by COVID-19 infection when compared to other respiratory infections. To overcome the COVID-19 cough training data shortage we exploit transfer learning. To reduce the misdiagnosis risk stemming from the complex dimensionality of the problem, we leverage a multi-pronged mediator centered risk-averse AI architecture. Results Results show AI4COVID-19 can distinguish among COVID-19 coughs and several types of non-COVID-19 coughs. The accuracy is promising enough to encourage a large-scale collection of labeled cough data to gauge the generalization capability of AI4COVID-19. AI4COVID-19 is not a clinical grade testing tool. Instead, it offers a screening tool deployable anytime, anywhere, by anyone. It can also be a clinical decision assistance tool used to channel clinical-testing and treatment to those who need it the most, thereby saving more lives.

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199 Citations

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