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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41467-021-21572-Y

Virus-specific memory T cell responses unmasked by immune checkpoint blockade cause hepatitis

04 Mar 2021-Nature Communications (Nature Publishing Group)-Vol. 12, Iss: 1, pp 1439-1439
Abstract: Treatment of advanced melanoma with combined PD-1/CTLA-4 blockade commonly causes serious immune-mediated complications. Here, we identify a subset of patients predisposed to immune checkpoint blockade-related hepatitis who are distinguished by chronic expansion of effector memory CD4+ T cells (TEM cells). Pre-therapy CD4+ TEM cell expansion occurs primarily during autumn or winter in patients with metastatic disease and high cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific serum antibody titres. These clinical features implicate metastasis-dependent, compartmentalised CMV reactivation as the cause of CD4+ TEM expansion. Pre-therapy CD4+ TEM expansion predicts hepatitis in CMV-seropositive patients, opening possibilities for avoidance or prevention. 3 of 4 patients with pre-treatment CD4+ TEM expansion who received αPD-1 monotherapy instead of αPD-1/αCTLA-4 therapy remained hepatitis-free. 4 of 4 patients with baseline CD4+ TEM expansion given prophylactic valganciclovir and αPD-1/αCTLA-4 therapy remained hepatitis-free. Our findings exemplify how pathogen exposure can shape clinical reactions after cancer therapy and how this insight leads to therapeutic innovations.

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Topics: Memory T cell (55%), Immune checkpoint (54%), Hepatitis (52%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS22158017
Robin Reschke, Philipp Gussek, Andreas Boldt, Ulrich Sack  +8 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: To identify potential early biomarkers of treatment response and immune-related adverse events (irAE), a pilot immune monitoring study was performed in stage IV melanoma patients by flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Overall, 17 patients were treated with either nivolumab or pembrolizumab alone, or with a combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab every three weeks. Of 15 patients for which complete response assessment was available, treatment responders (n = 10) as compared to non-responders (n = 5) were characterized by enhanced PD-1 expression on CD8+ T cells immediately before treatment (median ± median absolute deviation/MAD 26.7 ± 10.4% vs. 17.2 ± 5.3%). Responders showed a higher T cell responsiveness after T cell receptor ex vivo stimulation as determined by measurement of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) expression on CD3+ T cells before the second cycle of treatment. The percentage of CD8+ effector memory (CD8+CD45RA−CD45RO+CCR7−) T cells was higher in responders compared to non-responders before and immediately after the first cycle of treatment (median ± MAD 39.2 ± 7.3% vs. 30.5 ± 4.1% and 37.7 ± 4.6 vs. 24.0 ± 6.4). Immune-related adverse events (irAE) were accompanied by a higher percentage of activated CD4+ (CD4+CD38+HLADR+) T cells before the second treatment cycle (median ± MAD 14.9 ± 3.9% vs. 5.3 ± 0.4%). In summary, PBMC immune monitoring of immune-checkpoint inhibition (ICI) treatment in melanoma appears to be a promising approach to identify early markers of treatment response and irAEs.

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Topics: T cell (55%), Nivolumab (53%), Ipilimumab (52%) ... show more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FIMMU.2021.765644
Abstract: Treatment of advanced melanoma with combined immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy is complicated in up to 50 % of cases by immune-related adverse events (irAE) that commonly include hepatitis, colitis and skin reactions. We previously reported that pre-therapy expansion of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-reactive CD4+ effector memory T cells (TEM) predicts ICI-related hepatitis in a subset of patients with Stage IV melanoma given αPD-1 and αCTLA-4. Here, we develop and validate a 10-color flow cytometry panel for reliably quantifying CD4+ TEM cells and other biomarkers of irAE risk in peripheral blood samples. Compared to previous methods, our new panel performs equally well in measuring CD4+ TEM cells (agreement = 98 %) and is superior in resolving CD4+ CD197+ CD45RA- central memory T cells (TCM) from CD4+ CD197+ CD45RA+ naive T cells (Tnaive). It also enables us to precisely quantify CD14+ monocytes (CV = 6.6 %). Our new “monocyte and T cell” (MoT) assay predicts immune-related hepatitis with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 83 % and negative predictive value (NPV) of 80 %. Our essential improvements open the possibility of sharing our predictive methods with other clinical centers. Furthermore, condensing measurements of monocyte and memory T cell subsets into a single assay simplifies our workflows and facilitates computational analyses.

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Topics: Memory T cell (56.99%), T cell (56.99%), Immune checkpoint (52%) ... show more


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JTOCRR.2021.100213
02 Aug 2021-
Abstract: Sotorasib is a first-in-class small molecule that irreversibly inhibits KRAS G12C, locking it in an inactive state, inhibiting oncogenic signaling, and inducing a proinflammatory microenvironment. Here, we report the first case of life-threatening hepatitis in a patient with NSCLC shortly after commencing sotorasib, in which biopsy result was consistent with checkpoint inhibitor (CPI) immune-related adverse event, implicating sotorasib as being able to trigger CPI immune hepatitis. Given the large proportion of patients potentially treatable with sequential sotorasib after CPI, coupled with limited trial data, sotorasib-triggered CPI immune-related hepatitis should be considered in patients with sotorasib hepatotoxicity.

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Topics: Hepatitis (54%)


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52 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1504030
Abstract: The median progression-free survival was 11.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.9 to 16.7) with nivolumab plus ipilimumab, as compared with 2.9 months (95% CI, 2.8 to 3.4) with ipilimumab (hazard ratio for death or disease progression, 0.42; 99.5% CI, 0.31 to 0.57; P<0.001), and 6.9 months (95% CI, 4.3 to 9.5) with nivolumab (hazard ratio for the comparison with ipilimumab, 0.57; 99.5% CI, 0.43 to 0.76; P<0.001). In patients with tumors positive for the PD-1 ligand (PD-L1), the median progression-free survival was 14.0 months in the nivolumab-plus-ipilimumab group and in the nivolumab group, but in patients with PD-L1–negative tumors, progression-free survival was longer with the combination therapy than with nivolumab alone (11.2 months [95% CI, 8.0 to not reached] vs. 5.3 months [95% CI, 2.8 to 7.1]). Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or 4 occurred in 16.3% of the patients in the nivolumab group, 55.0% of those in the nivolumab-plus-ipilimumab group, and 27.3% of those in the ipilimumab group. CONCLUSIONS Among previously untreated patients with metastatic melanoma, nivolumab alone or combined with ipilimumab resulted in significantly longer progression-free survival than ipilimumab alone. In patients with PD-L1–negative tumors, the combination of PD-1 and CTLA-4 blockade was more effective than either agent alone. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb; CheckMate 067 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01844505.)

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Topics: Nivolumab (63%), Ipilimumab (62%), Pembrolizumab (50%)

5,279 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE13954
27 Nov 2014-Nature
Abstract: Therapies that target the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor have shown unprecedented rates of durable clinical responses in patients with various cancer types One mechanism by which cancer tissues limit the host immune response is via upregulation of PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) and its ligation to PD-1 on antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells (termed adaptive immune resistance) Here we show that pre-existing CD8(+) T cells distinctly located at the invasive tumour margin are associated with expression of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune inhibitory axis and may predict response to therapy We analysed samples from 46 patients with metastatic melanoma obtained before and during anti-PD-1 therapy (pembrolizumab) using quantitative immunohistochemistry, quantitative multiplex immunofluorescence, and next-generation sequencing for T-cell antigen receptors (TCRs) In serially sampled tumours, patients responding to treatment showed proliferation of intratumoral CD8(+) T cells that directly correlated with radiographic reduction in tumour size Pre-treatment samples obtained from responding patients showed higher numbers of CD8-, PD-1- and PD-L1-expressing cells at the invasive tumour margin and inside tumours, with close proximity between PD-1 and PD-L1, and a more clonal TCR repertoire Using multivariate analysis, we established a predictive model based on CD8 expression at the invasive margin and validated the model in an independent cohort of 15 patients Our findings indicate that tumour regression after therapeutic PD-1 blockade requires pre-existing CD8(+) T cells that are negatively regulated by PD-1/PD-L1-mediated adaptive immune resistance

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Topics: Acquired immune system (59%), Immunotherapy (57.99%), Immune system (56.99%) ... show more

4,022 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1412082
Abstract: Nivolumab was associated with higher rates of objective response than chemotherapy in a phase 3 study involving patients with ipilimumab-refractory metastatic melanoma. The use of nivolumab in previously untreated patients with advanced melanoma has not been tested in a phase 3 controlled study. METHODS We randomly assigned 418 previously untreated patients who had metastatic melanoma without a BRAF mutation to receive nivolumab (at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight every 2 weeks and dacarbazine-matched placebo every 3 weeks) or dacarbazine (at a dose of 1000 mg per square meter of body-surface area every 3 weeks and nivolumab-matched placebo every 2 weeks). The primary end point was overall survival. RESULTS At 1 year, the overall rate of survival was 72.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65.5 to 78.9) in the nivolumab group, as compared with 42.1% (95% CI, 33.0 to 50.9) in the dacarbazine group (hazard ratio for death, 0.42; 99.79% CI, 0.25 to 0.73; P<0.001). The median progression-free survival was 5.1 months in the nivolumab group versus 2.2 months in the dacarbazine group (hazard ratio for death or progression of disease, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.56; P<0.001). The objective response rate was 40.0% (95% CI, 33.3 to 47.0) in the nivolumab group versus 13.9% (95% CI, 9.5 to 19.4) in the dacarbazine group (odds ratio, 4.06; P<0.001). The survival benefit with nivolumab versus dacarbazine was observed across prespecified subgroups, including subgroups defined by status regarding the programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Common adverse events associated with nivolumab included fatigue, pruritus, and nausea. Drugrelated adverse events of grade 3 or 4 occurred in 11.7% of the patients treated with nivolumab and 17.6% of those treated with dacarbazine. CONCLUSIONS Nivolumab was associated with significant improvements in overall survival and progression-free survival, as compared with dacarbazine, among previously untreated patients who had metastatic melanoma without a BRAF mutation. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb; CheckMate 066 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01721772.)

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Topics: Nivolumab (60%), Dacarbazine (56%), Ipilimumab (53%) ... show more

3,949 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1302369
Abstract: A total of 53 patients received concurrent therapy with nivolumab and ipilimumab, and 33 received sequenced treatment. The objective-response rate (according to modified World Health Organization criteria) for all patients in the concurrent-regimen group was 40%. Evidence of clinical activity (conventional, unconfirmed, or immune-related response or stable disease for ≥24 weeks) was observed in 65% of patients. At the maximum doses that were associated with an acceptable level of adverse events (nivolumab at a dose of 1 mg per kilogram of body weight and ipilimumab at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram), 53% of patients had an objective response, all with tumor reduction of 80% or more. Grade 3 or 4 adverse events related to therapy occurred in 53% of patients in the concurrent-regimen group but were qualitatively similar to previous experience with monotherapy and were generally reversible. Among patients in the sequenced-regimen group, 18% had grade 3 or 4 adverse events related to therapy and the objective-response rate was 20%. CONCLUSIONS Concurrent therapy with nivolumab and ipilimumab had a manageable safety profile and provided clinical activity that appears to be distinct from that in published data on monotherapy, with rapid and deep tumor regression in a substantial proportion of patients. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Ono Pharmaceutical; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01024231.)

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Topics: Nivolumab (63%), Ipilimumab (61%)

3,483 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE14011
Roy S. Herbst1, Jean-Charles Soria2, Marcin Kowanetz3, Gregg Fine3  +18 moreInstitutions (9)
27 Nov 2014-Nature
Abstract: The development of human cancer is a multistep process characterized by the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations that drive or reflect tumour progression. These changes distinguish cancer cells from their normal counterparts, allowing tumours to be recognized as foreign by the immune system. However, tumours are rarely rejected spontaneously, reflecting their ability to maintain an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1; also called B7-H1 or CD274), which is expressed on many cancer and immune cells, plays an important part in blocking the 'cancer immunity cycle' by binding programmed death-1 (PD-1) and B7.1 (CD80), both of which are negative regulators of T-lymphocyte activation. Binding of PD-L1 to its receptors suppresses T-cell migration, proliferation and secretion of cytotoxic mediators, and restricts tumour cell killing. The PD-L1-PD-1 axis protects the host from overactive T-effector cells not only in cancer but also during microbial infections. Blocking PD-L1 should therefore enhance anticancer immunity, but little is known about predictive factors of efficacy. This study was designed to evaluate the safety, activity and biomarkers of PD-L1 inhibition using the engineered humanized antibody MPDL3280A. Here we show that across multiple cancer types, responses (as evaluated by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours, version 1.1) were observed in patients with tumours expressing high levels of PD-L1, especially when PD-L1 was expressed by tumour-infiltrating immune cells. Furthermore, responses were associated with T-helper type 1 (TH1) gene expression, CTLA4 expression and the absence of fractalkine (CX3CL1) in baseline tumour specimens. Together, these data suggest that MPDL3280A is most effective in patients in which pre-existing immunity is suppressed by PD-L1, and is re-invigorated on antibody treatment.

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Topics: Cancer cell (57.99%), Immune system (57.99%), Cancer (57.99%) ... show more

3,477 Citations