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Journal ArticleDOI

Visual immersion for cultural understanding and multimodal literacy

22 May 2017-Arts Education Policy Review (Routledge)-Vol. 118, Iss: 4, pp 220-227
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed an inclusive art curriculum that accommodates all learners, including English language learners, in and through the arts, to facilitate a sense of belonging for students whose home language and cultural aesthetic may be different from those of the dominant school culture.
Abstract: When considering inclusive art curriculum that accommodates all learners, including English language learners, two distinct yet inseparable issues come to mind The first is that English language learner students can use visual language and visual literacy skills inherent in visual arts curriculum to scaffold learning in and through the arts Second, in facilitating a sense of belonging for students whose home language and cultural aesthetic may be different from those of the dominant school culture, an authentically developed multicultural art curriculum can guide self-efficacy and inclusiveness Both aspects of teaching art for English language learners can have the added benefits of facilitating collaborative learning opportunities and increasing worldviews for all students
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Art as Experience as discussed by the authors is a book that brings together the deep and enduring connection between art and human experience, and art is understood not as a commodity or solitary object but as an intensely meaningful experience.
Abstract: In Art as Experience, Dewey brings together the deep and enduring connection between art and human experience. Art is understood not as a commodity or solitary object but as an intensely meaningful...

1,149 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

198 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: Henry et al. as mentioned in this paper examined the semester-long experiences of art education students who participated in The University of Georgia Studies Abroad in Cortona, Italy program from 2003 to 2006, providing sequential art instruction to Italian children who were not English speakers.
Abstract: Current research indicates that within the United States, many preservice teachers are not prepared to work with a rapidly changing student population that includes an increasing number of immigrant students with limited proficiency in English (Giambo & Szecsi, 2005/2006; Janzen, 2008; Latta & Chan, 2011). This article presents findings from a longitudinal qualitative study that examined the semester-long experiences of preservice art education students who participated in The University of Georgia Studies Abroad in Cortona, Italy program from 2003 to 2006, providing sequential art instruction to Italian children who were not English speakers. In 2010, we conducted follow-up interviews to better understand the potential long-term effects of this experience. Our findings indicated this experience gave the art education students increased cultural understanding and greater confidence in their teaching, and provided a foundational experience that they believed would help them be more successful in working with English Language Learners (ELLs) in the future. IJEA Vol. 16 No. 3 http://www.ijea.org/v16n3/ 2 Introduction Current research indicates that within the United States, many preservice teachers across the disciplines are not adequately prepared to work with a rapidly changing student population that includes an increasing number of immigrant students who do not yet speak English1 (Giambo & Szecsi, 2005/2006; Janzen, 2008; Latta & Chan, 2011). Latta and Chan (2011) see the arts as “hold[ing] much potential” in this area because of the nature of the arts themselves; the arts function as forms of communication “enabling translation and fostering understandings of abstract and complex concepts” (p. xviii) and in that way are often able to transcend other more standard forms of communication. This article presents findings from a longitudinal qualitative study2 that examined the experiences of preservice art education students who participated in The University of Georgia Studies Abroad in Cortona, Italy program between 2003 and 2006, providing sequential art instruction to Italian children who were not English speakers. The art education students were enrolled in a semester-long elementary theory and methods course offered as part of the studies abroad program and cotaught a unit of art lessons within the local Italian school as a component of the course. In 2010, we conducted follow-up interviews to better understand the potential long-term effects of this semester-long experience. While we acknowledge that there are substantial sociocultural differences that exist between educational contexts in the U.S. and in Cortona, our findings indicated this experience gave the art education students increased cultural understanding and greater confidence in their teaching, and provided a foundational experience they believed would help them be more successful in working with English Language Learners (ELLs) in the future. Preparing Teachers for Diverse Classrooms Today’s educational climate is increasingly more diverse. According to Villegas and Lucas (2002), more than one in seven school age children speak a language other than English at home. While a number of states, such as those that border Mexico, have experienced immigration for some time, the populations of other states have also become increasingly more diverse in the last decade with immigration from many parts of the world including Asia, the Middle East, Central America, the African continent and Eastern Europe. Some of these population changes have been quite dramatic. For example, within Georgia, population changes included more than a quarter of a million immigrants moving to the state between 1 Some portions of this article first appeared in Henry, C. (2007), “Teaching in Another Culture: Preparing Art Educators for Teaching English Language Learners (ELL)” in Art Education, 60(6), 33-39, which documents the pilot study conducted in 2001. 2 This research project was supported by funding from a 2006 University of Georgia Research Foundation Grant. Henry & Costantino: The Role of Cross-Cultural Experience in Art Teacher Preparation 3 2000 and 2009. During the same time period, the Hispanic population of Georgia nearly doubled with nine school systems reporting 10% or more of their student population as having limited English proficiency (State of Georgia Governor’s Office of Planning and Budget, 2009). The 2010 U.S. Census Bureau figures show that Georgia’s Hispanic population has continued to grow by 96% since 2000 (2010 Census Data, n.d.), with important implications for teacher preparation programs in the state. In 2003-04, over 5 million children in the U.S. were identified as limited in English proficiency with ELLs comprising approximately 10% of the preK-12 population, a 44% increase from a decade earlier (Giambo & Szecsi, 2005/06). Many of these children receive only limited English as a Second Language (ESOL) classes (Fillmore, 2000). According to Latta and Chan (2011), an increasing number of school systems are “mainstreaming” ELL students, now providing English instruction through regular curricular classes rather than funding stand-alone ESOL classes. Stress and anxiety are common as the children, having recently left their friends and their homes, enter classrooms where they lack proficiency in the dominant language. Many of the children are also expected to speak English in school and their native language at home (Miller & Endo, 2004) and to serve as “translators” for their parents in conversations with doctors, attorneys, and school personnel. Adding to those issues are the increasing calls for immigration reform in the U.S., with stark, and often inflammatory, political messages that affect how immigrant children, legal or illegal, are perceived by others, as well as how they perceive themselves. Better understanding of the emotional, as well as the cognitive needs of ELL students is crucial to their educational success in a new country. ELLs and Art Education Because art is considered by many to be a visual (Arnheim, 1954; Dewey, 1934; Eisner, 2002; Feldman, 1982) or “alternative” language (Mezirow, 2000), children who speak languages other than English are frequently placed in art classes soon after they enroll in a school. Eubanks (2002) explained that “the art classroom may be the first place that immigrant students feel comfortable and capable in school”(p. 44), adding that art teachers often must quickly adapt curricula and pedagogy on an individual basis. Understanding the needs of ELLs and developing teaching strategies that are successful should be crucial components of art teacher preparation programs today. Studies of preservice dispositions toward cultural diversity have indicated that teacher candidates, while “open to the idea of cultural diversity. . . lacked confidence in their ability to do well in diverse settings” (Hollins & Gutzman, 2005, p. 483). Experiences with students who speak other languages during teacher preparation can better prepare future art teachers for the diversity within the contemporary classroom (Henry, 2007; Latta & Chan, 2011). IJEA Vol. 16 No. 3 http://www.ijea.org/v16n3/ 4 Professional organizations recognize the challenge of this “demographic imperative” (Banks, Cochran-Smith, Moll, Richert, Zeichner, LePage, et al., 2005, p. 242), as in the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education Standards (NCATE), which require that all “candidates. . .acquire and demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions necessary to help all students learn” in preparation for “working with diverse populations . . . in P-12 schools” (NCATE, 2007, n. p.). Specifically mentioning the needs of ELLs, the target goal for Standard 4: Diversity is that candidates are able to “challenge students toward cognitive complexity and engage all students, including English language learners” (NCATE, 2007, n. p.). The National Art Education Association’s Standards for Art Teacher Preparation (2009) also specify that study “in the artistic, cognitive, emotional, moral, physical, and social development . . . of English language learners” among other “special populations” (including “special needs” and “gifted”) and “of teaching strategies appropriate to these populations”(p. 4) be included in art education teacher preparation programs. The question becomes an issue of how these goals can become educational reality within the confines of often competing institutional expectations and curricular demands. Art teacher preparation programs vary widely within the US in terms of both content and course offerings (Beudert, 2006). While scholars in the field (Blocker, 2004; Chalmers, 2002; Desai & Chalmers, 2007) have articulated the need to address issues of culture and diversity in contemporary art education, research focusing on how this is actually being accomplished is needed. Beudert (2006) attributes the lack of scholarly research focusing on art teacher preparation programs in general to the interest of faculty and doctoral students in more theoretical issues and urges such research to make our work as teacher educators more visible. There has been progress in the last decade in recognizing the practitioner research of teacher educators as a viable and important endeavor (e.g., Cochran-Smith & Donnell, 2006; Hamilton & Pinnegar, 2000). This work can inform the development of self-study, the scholarship of teaching and learning, and other forms of practitioner research in art education as appropriate methodologies for studying art teacher preparation programs. Conceptual Framework Scholars have long been aware of the problems inherent within teacher education in connecting theory to practice. The practice of critical reflection, in which preservice teachers relate their classroom experiences to theoretical and philosophical concepts they encounter in their studies, is a crucial means to bridge that potential

10 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the use of visual thinking technique made the students' critical thingking was increase for all indicators, namely, the ability of analyzing (75.8% or high), describing (61.7% or low), interpreting (60.0%, evaluating (66.7%, or moderate), inferring (73.3%), and assessing self-regulation by themselves.
Abstract: This research aimed to increase the critical thinking ability of the students by using visual thinking technique. The critical thinking ability of the students was measured by 6 indicators, in which five of these indicators measured the students’ cognitive ability through analyzing, describing, interpreting, evaluating, and inferring activity, while the other indicator measured the students’ affective ability of self regulation. The research approach used was Classroom Action Research involving 40 students of Class 2C at Yogyakarta State University as the research subjects. The instrument used in this research was written test in the form of free essay, interview, and Guttman’s Attitude Scale. The data were analyzed by using qualitative and quantitative techniques. The qualitative technique was used for data description, while the quantitative technique was used for the percentage descriptive analysis. The result of the research showed that the use of visual thinking technique made the students’ critical thingking was increase for all indicators, namely the ability of analyzing (75.8% or high), describing (61.7% or low), interpreting (60.0% or low), evaluating (66.7% or moderate), inferring (73.3% or high), and assessing self-regulation by themselves (75.7% or high). This research aimed to increase the critical thinking ability of the students by using visual thinking technique. The critical thinking ability of the students was measured by 6 indicators, in which five of these indicators measured the students’ cognitive ability through analyzing, describing, interpreting, evaluating, and inferring activity, while the other indicator measured the students’ affective ability of self regulation. The research approach used was Classroom Action Research involving 40 students of Class 2C at Yogyakarta State University as the research subjects. The instrument used in this research was written test in the form of free essay, interview, and Guttman’s Attitude Scale. The data were analyzed by using qualitative and quantitative techniques. The qualitative technique was used for data description, while the quantitative technique was used for the percentage descriptive analysis. The result of the research showed that the use of visual thinking technique was effective in increasing the critical thinking ability of the students for all indicators, namely the ability of analyzing (75.8% or high), describing (61.7% or low), interpreting (60.0% or low), evaluating (66.7% or moderate), inferring (73.3% or high), and assessing self-regulation by themselves (75.7% or high). Keywords: 1. Introduction critical thinking, visual thinking

1 citations

Book ChapterDOI
06 Sep 2021
TL;DR: In this paper, the challenges and opportunities of using multiliteracies pedagogy and multimodality in a nontraditional English language arts classroom are explored, and solutions for educators to promote learning that is meaningful, engaging, and relevant to students are provided.
Abstract: This chapter explores the challenges and opportunities of using multiliteracies pedagogy and multimodality in a nontraditional English language arts classroom. The paper highlights the dynamic and contemporary nature of the multiliteracies pedagogy and multimodal literacy practices proposed by the New London Group (1996). This paper makes connections through the analysis of scholarship and practice and provides solutions for educators to promote learning that is meaningful, engaging, and relevant to students. The focus is on promoting literacy instruction that values students' creativity, language, and culture to cultivate analysis, inquiry, and agency.

1 citations

References
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Book
01 Jan 1934
TL;DR: In this article, Seni Sebagai Pengalaman telah berkembang dan dipertimbangkan secara internasional sebagai karya paling terkenal ying pernah ditulis oleh John Dewey, seorang Amerika, pada struktur formal and efek karakteristik dari semua seni: arsitektur, patung, lukisan, musik and sastra.
Abstract: “Seni Sebagai Pengalaman” telah berkembang dan dipertimbangkan secara internasional sebagai karya paling terkenal yang pernah ditulis oleh John Dewey, seorang Amerika, pada struktur formal dan efek karakteristik dari semua seni: arsitektur, patung, lukisan, musik dan sastra. Buku ini wajib dibaca oleh seniman maupun kolektorseni untuk memperdalam pengetahuan perspektif pada seni. Pada prinsipnya buku ini mengulas tentang estetika seni.

6,027 citations

Book
17 Feb 1994
TL;DR: The three Curricula that all schools teach are discussed in this article, with a focus on the art of teaching and the functions and forms of evaluation, and some examples of educational criticisms.
Abstract: 1. Schooling in America: Where Are We Headed? 2. Some Concepts, Distinctions, and Definitions. 3. Curriculum Ideologies. 4. The Three Curricula That All Schools Teach. 5. Educational Aims, Objectives, and Other Aspirations. 6. Dimensions of Curriculum Planning. 7. On the Art of Teaching. 8. The Functions and Forms of Evaluation. 9. Reshaping Assessment in Education. 10. The Forms and Functions of Educational Connoisseurship and Educational Criticism. 11. Some Examples of Educational Criticism. 12. A Criticism of an Educational Criticism. 13. Summing Up Some of the Major Points. Index.

1,765 citations


"Visual immersion for cultural under..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Eisner (1985) warned of the null curriculum, that devalues through omission certain skill sets and perspectives that are left unexplored....

    [...]

Book
01 Jan 2002
TL;DR: Eisner argues that the arts are more helpful in dealing with ambiguities and uncertainties of daily life than are the formally structured curricula that are employed today in schools.
Abstract: Although the arts are often thought to be closer to the rim of education than to its core, they are, surprisingly, critically important means for developing complex and subtle aspects of the mind, argues Elliot Eisner in this engrossing book. In it he describes how various forms of thinking are evoked, developed, and refined through the arts. These forms of thinking, Eisner argues, are more helpful in dealing with the ambiguities and uncertainties of daily life than are the formally structured curricula that are employed today in schools. Offering a rich array of examples, Eisner describes different approaches to the teaching of the arts and the virtues each possesses when well taught. He discusses especially nettlesome issues pertaining to the evaluation of performance in the arts. Perhaps most important, Eisner provides a fresh and admittedly iconoclastic perspective on what the arts can contribute to education, namely a new vision of both its aims and its means. This new perspective, Eisner argues, is especially important today, a time at which mechanistic forms of technical rationality often dominate our thinking about the conduct and assessment of education.

1,631 citations


"Visual immersion for cultural under..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Since art integration teaches students the processes of inquiry and communication (Eisner, 2002; Marshall, 2014; Smilan, 2016) perhaps a tri-lingual immersion in which the visual arts are seen as a co-equal language would benefit all learners as they develop conceptual understandings in multiple disciplines as well as the ability to articulate their knowledge visually and through spoken/written languages....

    [...]

  • ...…that is adaptable to the all learners’ needs, providing leveled instruction and multiple ways of engaging with and representing knowledge (Eisner, 2002; Smilan, 2012; Smilan & Miraglia, 2009b) encourages experiential learning and promotes cultural exchange and inclusiveness (Knight,…...

    [...]

  • ...Art integration as a visual language strategy Art is often described and instructed as a visual language (Dewey, 1934; Eisner, 2002; Lowenfeld & Brittain, 1987)....

    [...]

  • ...Art is often described and instructed as a visual language (Dewey, 1934; Eisner, 2002; Lowenfeld & Brittain, 1987)....

    [...]

  • ...Since art integration teaches students the processes of inquiry and communication (Eisner, 2002; Marshall, 2014; Smilan, 2016) perhaps a tri-lingual immersion in which the visual arts are seen as a co-equal language would benefit all learners as they develop conceptual understandings in multiple…...

    [...]

Book
01 Jan 1987

1,542 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Art as Experience as discussed by the authors is a book that brings together the deep and enduring connection between art and human experience, and art is understood not as a commodity or solitary object but as an intensely meaningful experience.
Abstract: In Art as Experience, Dewey brings together the deep and enduring connection between art and human experience. Art is understood not as a commodity or solitary object but as an intensely meaningful...

1,149 citations


"Visual immersion for cultural under..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Art is often described and instructed as a visual language (Dewey, 1934; Eisner, 2002; Lowenfeld & Brittain, 1987)....

    [...]

  • ...Art integration as a visual language strategy Art is often described and instructed as a visual language (Dewey, 1934; Eisner, 2002; Lowenfeld & Brittain, 1987)....

    [...]