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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/13825585.2020.1743230

Volunteering in older adulthood is associated with activity engagement and cognitive functioning.

04 Mar 2021-Aging Neuropsychology and Cognition (Routledge)-Vol. 28, Iss: 2, pp 253-269
Abstract: Introduction: Given evidence that activity engagement in older adulthood can have protective effects on the aging brain, we investigated the idea that volunteering in the community, which often enc...

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Topics: Successful aging (61%), Cognition (55%), Cognitive skill (53%)
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/03036758.2020.1796102
Liana Machado1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Human cognition is supported by diverse brain networks that undergo change throughout adulthood and can be impacted by brain disease. This review summarises some of the significant progress made by...

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Topics: Brain stimulation (65%), Aging brain (57%), Cognition (53%) ... show more

4 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/0891988720964260
Abstract: This study aims to investigate whether altruism and volunteering are associated differently with cognitive functioning in community-dwelling older adults. A 2-year longitudinal study of 291 Brazilian older adults was conducted. In the baseline analysis, altruism, but not volunteering, was associated with higher scores for the composite cognitive score, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the verbal fluency and the CERAD Recall. Concerning the longitudinal analyses, volunteering at baseline, but not altruism, was associated with verbal fluency and CERAD Word List Recall after 2 years of follow up. Same results were obtained while investigating changes in score. Altruism and volunteering were associated with cognitive tests, albeit in different ways. Volunteering, but not altruism, was associated with lower cognitive decline. However, altruism, but not volunteering, was associated with higher absolute score on these tests. These findings can further understanding of this new field of health research.

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Topics: Cognitive decline (55%), Cognitive test (52%), Longitudinal study (52%) ... show more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH18136704
Abstract: A mixed methodology was used through the triangulation of quantitative and qualitative data to determine older adults’ perspectives regarding volunteering and identify what factors can contribute to promoting it, with special emphasis on the role that their own well-being plays in this behavior. The results reveal that satisfaction with life as a whole contributes positively to volunteer behavior and satisfaction with the groups one belongs to contributes negatively. The volunteers were less satisfied than non-volunteers with interpersonal relationships and with the groups they belong to. Knowing the opinion of the older adults with regard to volunteering and understanding how this prosocial behavior relates to their own well-being is very useful for developing strategic plans that allow future volunteers to be captured.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/0361073X.2021.1919475
Abstract: Objectives: The current research addressed gaps in the literature regarding short-term computerized cognitive retest performance in young and older adults using two integrated speed-accuracy metrics. The aims were: (a) to advance the aging literature on short-term retest performance using a computerized cognitive battery and a retest schedule that included both within- and between-day time points, and (b) to assess the test-retest reliability of two integrated speed-accuracy metrics, inverse efficiency scores (IES) and balanced integration scores (BIS).Method: Twenty young (18-23 years) and thirty older (65-71 years) men completed a battery measuring a range of cognitive functions, six times over three testing days, each 1 week apart.Results: Compared to young adults, older adults exhibited steeper within- and between-day performance gains in IES and BIS, which may reflect a combination of lower initial cognitive ability and familiarity, indicating that older adults may require more familiarization on computerized tests. Relative to unadjusted reaction times, IES reliability appeared comparable in older adults, but slightly lower among young adults. The reliability of BIS was lower than unadjusted reaction times and IES in both age groups.Discussion: Our findings provide guidance for researchers wanting to combine speed and accuracy into a single performance metric in repeated testing contexts.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPSYG.2021.620867
Abstract: Research supporting cognitive reserve theory suggests that engaging in a variety of cognitive, social, and physical activities may serve as protective factors against age-related changes in mental functioning, especially if the activities are cognitively engaging. Individuals who participate in a variety of cognitive activities have been found to be more likely to maintain a higher level of cognitive functioning and be less likely to develop dementia. In this study, we explore the relationship between engaging in a variety of activities and cognitive performance amongst 206 healthy older adults between the ages of 65-85. Age and years of education were found to be the most significant predictors of a global composite representing cognitive performance, consistent with previous work linking these variables to age-related changes in cognition and the cognitive reserve. We interpret these results to suggest that age and education are better predictors of global cognitive performance in older adults than self-reported activity engagement.

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Topics: Cognitive reserve (63%), Cognition (59%), Cognitive skill (58%) ... show more
References
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48 results found


Open access
01 Jan 2002-
Abstract: EXAMINATION of the mental state is essential in evaluating psychiatric patients.1 Many investigators have added quantitative assessment of cognitive performance to the standard examination, and have documented reliability and validity of the several “clinical tests of the sensorium”.2*3 The available batteries are lengthy. For example, WITHERS and HINTON’S test includes 33 questions and requires about 30 min to administer and score. The standard WAIS requires even more time. However, elderly patients, particularly those with delirium or dementia syndromes, cooperate well only for short periods.4 Therefore, we devised a simplified, scored form of the cognitive mental status examination, the “Mini-Mental State” (MMS) which includes eleven questions, requires only 5-10 min to administer, and is therefore practical to use serially and routinely. It is “mini” because it concentrates only on the cognitive aspects of mental functions, and excludes questions concerning mood, abnormal mental experiences and the form of thinking. But within the cognitive realm it is thorough. We have documented the validity and reliability of the MMS when given to 206 patients with dementia syndromes, affective disorder, affective disorder with cognitive impairment “pseudodementia”5T6), mania, schizophrenia, personality disorders, and in 63 normal subjects.

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Topics: Mental status examination (58%), Dementia (55%), Cognition (54%) ... show more

70,887 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/014662167700100306
Lenore Sawyer Radloff1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The CES-D scale is a short self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptomatology in the general population. The items of the scale are symptoms associated with depression which have been used in previously validated longer scales. The new scale was tested in household interview surveys and in psychiatric settings. It was found to have very high internal consistency and adequate test- retest repeatability. Validity was established by pat terns of correlations with other self-report measures, by correlations with clinical ratings of depression, and by relationships with other variables which support its construct validity. Reliability, validity, and factor structure were similar across a wide variety of demographic characteristics in the general population samples tested. The scale should be a useful tool for epidemiologic studies of de pression.

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44,791 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879
Abstract: Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.

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Topics: Response bias (60%)

41,990 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1163/156856897X00357
01 Jan 1997-Spatial Vision
Abstract: The Psychophysics Toolbox is a software package that supports visual psychophysics. Its routines provide an interface between a high-level interpreted language (MATLAB on the Macintosh) and the video display hardware. A set of example programs is included with the Toolbox distribution.

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Topics: Visual Psychophysics (64%), Toolbox (55%), Psychophysics (52%)

15,313 Citations


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