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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/01441647.2020.1806942

Waiting time and headway modelling for urban transit systems – a critical review and proposed approach

04 Mar 2021-Transport Reviews (Informa UK Limited)-Vol. 41, Iss: 2, pp 141-163
Abstract: The cost associated with the waiting time that passengers incur in a public transit network is one of the main components of total transit travel cost. The cost of a unit of waiting time per passen...

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Topics: Headway (61%), Public transport (55%)
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Open access
01 Aug 2010-
Abstract: Coordination of vehicle schedules in a public transit system affects generalized costs. An idealized system that delivers its users to a common destination by requiring each to transfer from a feeder to a trunk-line vehicle is considered. Continuum models are used first to analyze cases in which the trunk-line vehicle schedule is given exogenously. When feeder vehicles are dispatched in coordination with this exogenous trunk-line schedule, the reduction in user cost often outweighs the added cost to the feeder operation. In cases when the frequencies of trunk and feeder services can be established jointly, the models show that coordination can be Pareto improving, meaning that operator and user costs both diminish. Conditions that give rise to these cost savings are specified. Practical implications are discussed.

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Topics: Cost effectiveness (56%), Schedule (56%)

46 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: We study the interaction between pricing, frequency of service and information provision by public transport firms offering scheduled services, and we do so under various regulatory regimes. The model assumes that users can come to the bus stop or rail station at random or they can plan their trips; the fraction of users who plan their trips is endogenous and depends on the frequency of service and on the quality of information provided. Four institutional regimes are considered, reflecting various degrees of government regulation. A numerical example illustrates the theoretical results. Findings include the following. First, fare regulation induces the firm to provide less frequency and less information than is socially optimal. Second, if information and frequency did not affect the number of planning users a higher fare always induces the firm to raise both frequency and the quality of information. With endogenous planning, however, this need not be the case, as the effect of higher fares strongly depends on how frequency and information quality affect the number of planners. Third, a profit-maximizing firm offers more information than a fare-regulated firm. Fourth, if the agency regulates both the fare and the quality of information then more stringent information requirements induce the firm to reduce frequency; this strongly limits the welfare improvement of information regulation. Finally, of all institutional structures considered, socially optimal fares, frequency and quality of information stimulate passengers least to plan their trips, because the high frequency offered reduces the benefits of trip planning.

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Topics: Information quality (61%), Public transport (50%)

27 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TRE.2021.102240
Mingyang Pei1, Mingyang Pei2, Peiqun Lin1, Jun Du2  +3 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Modular vehicle (MV) technology offers the possibility of flexibly adjusting the vehicle capacity by docking/undocking modular pods into vehicles of different sizes en route to satisfy passenger demand Based on the MV technology, a modular transit network system (MTNS) concept is proposed to overcome the mismatch between fixed vehicle capacity and spatially varying travel demand in traditional public transportation systems To achieve the optimal MTNS design, a mixed-integer nonlinear programming model is developed to balance the tradeoff between the vehicle operation cost and the passenger trip time cost The nonlinear model is reformulated into a computationally tractable linear model The linear model solves the lower and upper bounds of the original nonlinear model to produce a near-optimal solution to the MTNS design This reformulated linear model can be solved with off-the-shelf commercial solvers (eg, Gurobi) Two numerical examples are used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model and its effectiveness in reducing system costs

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Topics: Nonlinear programming (54%), Modular design (54%), Integer programming (53%) ... read more

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IJTST.2020.12.005
Yuxiong Ji1, Bing Liu1, Yu Shen1, Yuchuan Du1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The Modular Autonomous Vehicle (MAV) systems allow a vehicle module to join onto and detach from other modules to dynamically adjust vehicle capacity. It potentially renders transit agencies more flexibility to deal with the temporal fluctuations of passenger demand. In this work, we propose a strategy for flexible MAV scheduling on transit routes to meet the time-varying passenger demand. The proposed strategy is formulated as a bi-objective optimization model considering both the utilization of vehicles and service quality. The model determines the scheduled departure times from the terminals, the length of MAV for each scheduled trip, and the assignment of modules to all scheduled trips, simultaneously. The e-constraint method is adopted to solve the developed model and the fuzzy satisfying approach is employed to select the best possible solution. We implement the proposed strategy in a real-world case study in comparison with a traditional strategy to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. The results show that the proposed strategy can remarkably improve the utilization of vehicles and also make passengers more convenient. Specifically, it leads to an 84.9% reduction in the total empty seat, as well as a 12.62% reduction in the total passenger waiting time.

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Topics: Modular design (50%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/23249935.2021.1987580
Jing Zhao1, Sicheng Sun1, Oded Cats2Institutions (2)
15 Oct 2021-Transportmetrica
Abstract: This study aims to jointly optimise regular and demand responsive transit (DRT) services, which can offer opportunities for leveraging on their respective advantages. An optimisation model with the objective of minimising the total travel time of passengers and the total fleet size is proposed. The terminal bus stops of regular bus lines, the service area of the DRT, and the fleet size of both regular and DRT are optimised simultaneously. A rule-based optimisation preparation step is added to the proposed model to obtain a reasonable design scheme and to reduce the computational load. The model is solved using a tailored boundary-start-based two-step heuristic algorithm. The performance of the mixed network is affected by the preference of the decision maker and the operation mode adopted for the DRT service. A reduction in the operational level of the DRT results in a considerable increase in the travel time of DRT passengers.

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1 Citations


References
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82 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0191-2615(89)90034-9
Heinz Spiess1, Michael Florian1Institutions (1)
Abstract: We describe a model for the transit assignment problem with a fixed set of transit lines The traveler chooses the strategy that allows him or her to reach his or her destination at minimum expected cost First we consider the case in which no congestion effects occur For the special case in which the waiting time at a stop depends only on the combined frequency, the problem is formulated as a linear programming problem of a size that increases linearly with the network size A label-setting algorithm is developed that solves the latter problem in polynomial time Nonlinear cost extensions of the model are considered as well

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Topics: Generalized assignment problem (64%), Assignment problem (59%), Linear programming (56%) ... read more

698 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TRC.2012.01.007
Marcela Munizaga1, Carolina PalmaInstitutions (1)
Abstract: A high-quality Origin–Destination (OD) matrix is a fundamental prerequisite for any serious transport system analysis However, it is not always easy to obtain it because OD surveys are expensive and difficult to implement This is particularly relevant in large cities with congested networks, where detailed zonification and time disaggregation require large sample sizes and complicated survey methods Therefore, the incorporation of information technology in some public transport systems around the world is an excellent opportunity for passive data collection In this paper, we present a methodology for estimating a public transport OD matrix from smartcard and GPS data for Santiago, Chile The proposed method is applied to two 1-week datasets obtained for different time periods From the data available, we obtain detailed information about the time and position of boarding public transportation and generate an estimation of time and position of alighting for over 80% of the boarding transactions The results are available at any desired time–space disaggregation After some post-processing and after incorporating expansion factors to account for unobserved trips, we build public transport OD matrices

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386 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1287/TRSC.6.1.52
Abstract: Vehicles load passengers at a single service point and, after traversing some route, return for another trip. The travel times of successive trips are independent identically distributed random variables with a known distribution function. After a vehicle returns to the service point, one has the option of holding it, or dispatching it immediately. Passengers arrive at a uniform rate and the objective is to minimize the average wait per passenger. The problem of determining the optimal strategy (dispatch or hold) for a system of m vehicles is formulated as a dynamic programming problem. It is analyzed in detail for m = 1 and m = 2. For m = 1, the optimal strategy will hold a vehicle if it returns within less than about half the mean trip time. For m = 2, and for a small coefficient of variation of trip time C(T), the optimal strategy will control the vehicles so as to retain nearly equally spaced dispatch times, within a range of time proportional to C4/3(T).

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Topics: Bus bunching (53%)

375 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TRB.2009.11.001
Carlos F. Daganzo1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This paper describes the network shapes and operating characteristics that allow a transit system to deliver an accessibility level competitive with that of the automobile. To provide exhaustive results for service regions of different sizes and demographics, the paper idealizes these regions as squares with uniform demand, and their possible networks as a broad and realistic family that combines the grid and the hub-and-spoke concepts. The paper also shows how to use these results to generate master plans of transit systems for real cities. The analysis reveals which network structure and technology (Bus, Bus Rapid Transit, or Metro) delivers the desired performance with the least cost. It is found that the more expensive the system's infrastructure, the more it should tilt toward the hub-and-spoke concept. Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) competes effectively with the automobile unless a city is big and its demand low. This happens despite the uniform demand assumption, which penalizes collective transport. It is also found that if a city has enough suitable streets on which to run Bus and BRT systems, these outperform Metro even if the city is large and the demand high. Agency costs are always small compared with user costs; and both decline with the demand density. In all cases, increasing the spatial concentration of stops beyond a critical level increases both, the user and agency costs. Too much spatial coverage is counterproductive.

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Topics: Bus rapid transit (64%), Public transport (54%)

220 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TRC.2013.06.004
Zhiyuan Liu1, Yadan Yan2, Yadan Yan3, Xiaobo Qu4  +1 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: When a bus is late and behind schedule, the stop-skipping scheme allows the bus vehicle to skip one or more stops to reduce its travel time. The deadheading problem is a special case of the stop-skipping problem, allowing a bus vehicle to skip stops between the dispatching terminal point and a designated stop. At the planning level, the optimal operating plans for these two schemes should be tackled for the benefits of bus operator as well as passengers. This paper aims to propose a methodology for this objective. Thus, three objectives are first proposed to reflect the benefits of bus operator and/or passengers, including minimizing the total waiting time, total in-vehicle travel time and total operating cost. Then, assuming random bus travel time, the stop-skipping is formulated as an optimization model minimizing the weighted sum of the three objectives. The deadheading problem can be formulated via the same minimization model further adding several new constraints. Then, a Genetic Algorithm Incorporating Monte Carlo Simulation is proposed to solve the optimization model. As validated by a numerical example, the proposed algorithm can obtain a satisfactory solution close to the global optimum.

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Topics: Bus bunching (61%), Schedule (51%)

215 Citations


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