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Journal ArticleDOI

Water Distribution Influenced by Pavement Alignment Design

01 Dec 2020-Vol. 146, Iss: 4, pp 04020058
TL;DR: In this paper, a simulation model for predicting pavement alignment is proposed to obtain the water distribution influenced by pavement alignment design under the current situation of highway reconstruction and extension in China, and the simulation model is used for predicting pave...
Abstract: To obtain the water distribution influenced by pavement alignment design under the current situation of highway reconstruction and extension in China, a simulation model for predicting pave...
Citations
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01 Sep 2009
TL;DR: In this article, a comparison of the main existing tire/road contact models was made, which aimed at modeling the hydroplaning phenomenon taking into account the load transfer between the rear and the front wheels, the water depth on the road, the skid resistance before total hydroplans, and the vehicle characteristics (tire, pressure, load, etc.).
Abstract: The frictional forces developed between the tire and wet pavement have a great effect on the safety of vehicles. This paper exposes the results of a study, which aims at modeling the hydroplaning phenomenon taking into account the load transfer between the rear and the front wheels, the water depth on the road, the skid resistance before total hydroplaning. A part of this work was funded by the PREDIT 3 (IRCAD project). In a first step, a comparison of the main existing tire/road contact models was realized. This work aimed at evaluating the models regarding the hypothesis made (parameters needed, physical properties taken into account or not). This bibliographical study concluded on the fact that the speed of the vehicle, the tires' characteristics (pressure, contact area, tread depth) the load, the water depth, the road profile and macrotexture were the most important parameters that should be included in a global hydroplaning model. Among these parameters, the water depth seems to be the most difficult to evaluate considering the fact that it deeply depends on the pavement irregularities (roughness and texture), the road geometry and the weather (rainfall intensity). That's why the French Regional Laboratory of Road and Bridges of Lyon proposes in a second step a model, which calculates the water depth by taking into account the geometry and the macrotexture of the road. A device called VANI measures the longitudinal slope, the transversal slope, the radius of curvature and the macrotexture of the road each meter. Thus, a vector is calculated each meter giving the main direction of the water flow. The individual vectors are added in view of determining the line of the water flow all along the road. Thus, it is possible to obtain cartography of the road containing the main water flow lines, the tops and the bottoms where the water is accumulating. The lengths of these lines are then used for the calculus of the water depth depending on the rainfall intensity and the road macrotexture. An experimental validation is realized by using a captor measuring the real water depth on the road. In a third step, this initial water depth is used in a bicycle model, which describes the longitudinal dynamics phenomenon. The load transfer between the front and the rear axles is calculated in straight line taken into account the skid resistance of the road (Longitudinal friction coefficient) and the driver behavior (acceleration, braking). Moreover, the water depth behind the rear tire is calculated by considering the water displacement generated by the front tires. The, the increase of the water thickness just behind the tire due to the flow in the tire tread and the pavement macrotexture is modeled with Navier stokes equations. Finally, this model provides a hydroplaning speed depending both on the infrastructure characteristic (geometry, skid resistance) and the vehicle characteristics (tire, pressure, load), which is used for warning the drivers.

16 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the relationship between wheel pressure, water film thickness and hydroplaning critical velocity with the exam of cars, medium cars and trucks was analyzed with the use of wedge angle of momentum caculated critical velocity in both cases.
Abstract: The paper which made use of wedge angle of momentum caculated hydroplaning critical velocity in both cases which consists of small wedge angle(0.4°)and larger wedge angle.Analysis of the relationship between wheel pressure,water film thickness and hydroplaning critical velocity with the exam of cars,medium cars and trucks.The results showed that: no matter small or large wedge angle,water skiing and wheel speed directly proportional to internal pressure;wedge angle is larger and the wheel pressure is constant,water-skiing and water film thickness is inversely proportional to the speed.Verifying hydroplaning critical velocity according to NASA skilling speed equation and the result show that its reliability to meet the requirements.

1 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the frequency and magnitude of flash floods in the olive orchards of southern Spain have increased because of climate change and unsustainable olive-growing techniques, showing an extraordinary sediment transport capacity of sub-daily pluvial floods.
Abstract: The frequency and magnitude of flash floods in the olive orchards of southern Spain have increased because of climate change and unsustainable olive-growing techniques. Affected surfaces occupy >85% of the rural regions of the Upper Guadalquivir Basin. Dangerous geomorphic processes record the increase of runoff, soil loss and streamflow through time. We report on ripple/dune growth over a plane bed on overland flows, deep incision of ephemeral gullies in olive groves and rock-bed erosion in streams, showing an extraordinary sediment transport capacity of sub-daily pluvial floods. We develop a novel method to design optimal solutions for natural flood management and erosion risk mitigation. We adopt physical-based equations and build a whole-system model that accurately reproduces the named processes. The approach yields the optimal targeted locations of nature-based solutions (NbSs) for active flow-control by choosing the physical-model parameters that minimise the peak discharge and the erosion-prone area, maximising the soil infiltration capacity. The sub-metric spatial resolution used to resolve microtopographic features of terrains/NbS yields a computational mesh with millions of cells, requiring a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to run massive numerical simulations. Our study could contribute to developing principles and standards for agricultural-management initiatives using NbSs in Mediterranean olive and vineyard orchards.

1 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an experimental validation of two widely used numerical models in urban flood inundation studies, the two-dimensional dynamic and diffusive wave models, implemented in the same unstructured finite volume code, removing in such a way any differences in the numerical discretisation other than the wave approximation used to compute the water velocity.

141 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the suitability of a mechanistic model, HYDRUS-1D, to correctly describe the hydraulic behavior of permeable pavement installed at the University of Calabria was investigated.

93 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed techniques/procedures on how to interpret water flow through the construction system using the HYDRUS model, which includes experimental and mathematical procedures for model calibration and validation to assess the suitability of the HYDUS-2D model to interpret the hydraulic behaviour of a lab-scale permeable pavement system.

56 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work deals with an efficient GPU implementation of the 2D shallow water equations on unstructured meshes analysing the influence of the mesh resolution both on the computational performance and the quality of the results to simulate a rainfall/runoff event.
Abstract: Hydrological processes that occur in catchments usually require large space resolution over long periods of time. The advance on numerical methods as well as the increasing power of computation are making possible the physically based simulation of these phenomena. In particular, the 2D shallow water equations can be used to provide distributions of water depth and velocity fields. The necessity of spatial resolution involves the use of a large number of elements hence increasing the computational time when simulating realistic scenarios for a long time period. This work deals with an efficient GPU implementation of the 2D shallow water equations on unstructured meshes analysing the influence of the mesh resolution both on the computational performance and the quality of the results to simulate a rainfall/runoff event. The numerical method to solve them has been developed and compared following three programming approaches: the sequential implementation and its adaptation to the multi-thread and many-core architectures. The particular detail of the influence of the mesh ordering when using unstructured triangular meshes is paid attention in this work to find the best strategy to further reduce the computational time in the context of GPU simulation. The resulting approach is efficient and can become very useful in environmental simulation of hydrological processes.

49 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide a contribution to the model benchmarking and to the influence induced by the application of simplified models on the numerical simulations of flood events, overcoming some limitations that characterize part of the studies in the literature.

48 citations