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Journal ArticleDOI

Wellth Creation: Using Computer Science to Support Proactive Health

01 Nov 2014-IEEE Computer (IEEE)-Vol. 47, Iss: 11, pp 70-72

TL;DR: By moving beyond logical data collection and engaging people on a subconscious and emotional level, computing technology could change cultural norms and thereby more effectively motivate lifestyle changes that prevent disease.

AbstractBy moving beyond logical data collection and engaging people on a subconscious and emotional level, computing technology could change cultural norms and thereby more effectively motivate lifestyle changes that prevent disease.

Topics: Subconscious (57%), Ubiquitous computing (55%), Logical data model (52%), Norm (social) (50%)

Summary (1 min read)

Introduction

  • C omputer science has been an integral part of healthcare for decades.
  • Data analytics and information visualization foster new understandings about relationships in medical records—for instance, between drug interactions and patient attributes.
  • Given the alarming rise in obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other preventable conditions, the authors believe that using computing technology to support individual aspirations for greater well-being is just as important to society as using it to improve ways to cure disease.
  • The computer has become the generic tool in offices and homes around the world—nearly no desk is without one.

IS THERE AN APP FOR THAT?

  • When it comes to proactive health, the majority of interactive technology developers and researchers have focused on developing apps that are very good at doing what computers do best: counting.
  • These apps generally return raw data to the user in the form of, say, a histogram of steps, a line graph of weight, an average heart rate, a comparison of today’s and yesterday’s calories.
  • After a while, as you grind out thousands of steps each day to meet the next threshold, the experience becomes dull and repetitive—you feel as if you’re chained to the sensor.
  • 5 Similar critiques have been raised about calorie counting.

BEYOND BEHAVIOR CHANGE

  • Existing proactive health apps are only reaching for low-hanging fruit.
  • A recent pilot study the authors conducted revealed that most runners and cyclists use heart rate monitor watches to motivate completion of the activity, not to monitor their real-time performance.
  • Even without the data generated by heart monitors and other self-tracking devices, ICT systems can draw on other kinds of information to create wellth.
  • Various APIs enable apps to copy data from one another—for example, a running app can display your weight results from a Wi-Fi– connected scale in the same screen.
  • Such a wayfinding approach goes beyond trying to modify their behavior by presenting us with simplistic numerical targets; rather, it illuminates paths to wellness that we’re more than happy to take but may not see on their own.

IT’S ABOUT THE SYSTEM, NOT ANOTHER APP

  • While behavior change certainly has a role to play in well-being, focusing on the individual ignores the environment and ethos in which individuals operate.
  • A conventional approach would be to 58 COMPUTER employ “persuasive technology” to, say, set off an alarm every 20 minutes to remind someone to move.

GRAND CHALLENGES FOR

  • As a new and comple-mentary paradigm to healthcare, proactive health opens up exciting system design opportunities and challenges.
  • This year’s Dagstuhl workshop was a first attempt to broadly engage the CS community as well as experts in other fields to make the world healthier by changing cultural norms.

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56 COMPUTER Published by the IEEE Computer Society 0018-9162/14/$31.00 © 2014 IEEE
STANDARDSINVISIBLE COMPUTING
By moving beyond logical data collection and engaging people on a
subconscious and emotional level, computing technology could change
cultural norms and thereby more effectively motivate lifestyle changes
that prevent disease.
C
omputer science has
been an integral part
of healthcare for
decades. Networking
and communications technologies
support telemedicine, bringing
expertise to remote locations to
aid in surgery, physical rehabilita-
tion, and home care. Advanced
graphics applications enable
brain and body imaging. Data
analytics and information visual-
ization foster new understandings
about relationships in medical
records—for instance, between
drug interactions and patient
attributes.
1
Human–computer
interaction has made the operat-
ing theater
2
and emergency room
safer
3
and medical devices easier
to use and more precise.
4
It’s fair
to say that innovations driven
by CS help more people receive
better healthcare, recover faster,
and return home sooner.
Thus far, CS has had less impact
on proactive health, or what we
call “wellth”—that is, practices that
lessen the chances of illness and im-
prove overall physical and mental
performance. Given the alarm-
ing rise in obesity, type 2 diabetes,
cardiovascular disease, and other
preventable conditions, we believe
that using computing technology to
support individual aspirations for
greater well-being is just as impor-
tant to society as using it to improve
ways to cure disease.
Wellth Creation:
Using Computer
Science to Support
Proactive Health
m.c. schraefel, University of Southampton
Elizabeth F. Churchill, eBay Research Labs
The computer has become the generic tool in oces and homes around the
world—nearly no desk is without one. However, the way workspaces are cur-
rently designed, with the computer on a table and the user sitting alone before
it, has strongly contributed to the modern sedentary culture. As more work pro-
cesses get digitalized, theres even less need to get up—to get a document or
book, pick up a fax, walk to the printer, and so on. This is certainly not healthy.
However, the emergence of many new information and communication technol-
ogies, from ubiquitous displays to tablet computers to wearable devices, pro-
vides us with a chance to fundamentally redesign ICT to move away from
sedentarism—a leading goal of proactive health.
Albrecht Schmidt, column editor

NOVEMBER 2014 57
IS THERE AN APP FOR THAT?
When it comes to proactive health,
the majority of interactive technol-
ogy developers and researchers have
focused on developing apps that are
very good at doing what computers
do best: counting. Apps connected
to increasingly cheaper and sophis-
ticated sensors tell us how much we
weigh, how fast our hearts beat, how
much we sleep, the number of steps
we take. Other apps count the ingre-
dients in our food: grams of protein
and carbohydrates, vitamin content,
number of calories.
These apps generally return raw
data to the user in the form of, say,
a histogram of steps, a line graph of
weight, an average heart rate, a com-
parison of today’s and yesterday’s
calories. But what problem are these
counts actually solving?
There’s a popular assertion—and a
growing belief among app developers—
that through this data people will learn
more about themselves and somehow
get healthier, perhaps simply by doing
more of a good thing. But more isn’t
always better.
Many readers are likely famil-
iar with “workplace challenges”
designed to promote exercise—for
instance, to increase steps each
week using a step-tracking app or
wearable device. After a while, as
you grind out thousands of steps
each day to meet the next thresh-
old, the experience becomes dull
and repetitive—you feel as if you’re
chained to the sensor. But what are
enough steps? What does a massive
step count accomplish? Nothing,
actually. Research suggests that
7,000–9,000 steps per day is suffi-
cient for disease mitigation.
5
Similar critiques have been raised
about calorie counting. It’s easy for
an app to match a food source to a
database with nutrition informa-
tion and, of course, calories, but
weight loss isn’t all about reducing
calories. Many people regain weight
after dieting, and this yo-yo effect
often isn’t due to lack of willpower:
rather, it’s attributable to insufficient
nutritional knowledge—something
a calorie-counter approach doesn’t
take into account.
BEYOND BEHAVIOR CHANGE
Despite their popularity, existing
proactive health apps are only reach-
ing for low-hanging fruit. ICT tools
are needed that go beyond logical
data collection to engage people on a
subconscious and emotional level.
A recent pilot study we conducted
revealed that most runners and cy-
clists use heart rate monitor watches
to motivate completion of the activ-
ity, not to monitor their real-time
performance. Simply having an
HR watch, it seems, can trigger our
desire to align practice (“go for a
run”) with how we perceive our-
selves and want to be perceived by
others (“look fit”).
But what about those who don’t
run or cycle? How can we reach
these individuals? Even without the
data generated by heart monitors
and other self-tracking devices, ICT
systems can draw on other kinds of
information to create wellth.
Computing devices can access
a plethora of user data from social
media, Web activity, calendars, GPS
logs, and the like as well as associ-
ated contextual informationfor
example, about current news,
weather, and traffic conditions. Inte-
grating this personal and contextual
data with machine learning for
sense making in the proactive health
domain remains, surprisingly, a blue
sky ambition—and an obvious deep
seam for researchers to explore.
Various APIs enable apps to copy
data from one another—for ex-
ample, a running app can display
your weight results from a Wi-Fi–
connected scale in the same screen.
You can also patch a feed from one
app into another to carry out cer-
tain actions: “If my weight exceeds
X, send text message to friend indi-
cating I owe him 20 quid.” However,
such simplistic approaches aim to
induce behavior change without pro-
viding any context.
It would be more useful to com-
bine relevant personal data with
related contextual information to
support informed decision making—
that is, to make better normal and
normal better. For example, suppose
a system could analyze a user’s cal-
endar events and sleep data over a
month and tell her upon waking one
morning, “Honey, you really do need
to slot in some rest; you’re burning
the candle at both ends. Look, you
have two hours without meetings
today and its not going to rain: why
not go for one of your favorite walks
around campus?”
Such a wayfinding approach goes
beyond trying to modify our behav-
ior by presenting us with simplistic
numerical targets; rather, it illumi-
nates paths to wellness that we’re
more than happy to take but may
not see on our own.
IT’S ABOUT THE SYSTEM,
NOT ANOTHER APP
While behavior change certainly
has a role to play in well-being, fo-
cusing on the individual ignores the
environment and ethos in which
individuals operate. As a systems
science that examines complex
operations, interactions, and infra-
structure, CS could be leveraged to
explore metalevel questions about
proactive health. How can we use
technology to support a new cultural
norm that values achieving and sus-
taining well-being?
If the goal of proactive health
is to change the status quo, to
make better normal, that means
eliminating sedentarism, a lead-
ing cause of cardiovascular disease
strongly linked to overweightness
and obesity as well as poor cogni-
tive function.
6
Given that a person
spends on average 9.3 hours per day
seated, most of that at work and un-
interrupted, how can we use CS to
promote a more active lifestyle? A
conventional approach would be to

58 COMPUTER
INVISIBLE COMPUTING
employ “persuasive technology” to,
say, set off an alarm every 20 min-
utes to remind someone to move.
Can we do better?
To impact the problem at scale,
we must consider the infrastruc-
ture that supports the cultural
norm of sedentarism.
For example, if one solution is
more “walking meetings”
7
outdoors,
what kinds of tools would robustly
support mobile idea generation?
Could we create ruggedized digital
white boards in the wild? Can we de-
velop a system that captures sketches
on the go in nanopaints on building
exteriors and transmits them to the
appropriate parties for revision?
Similar questions can be raised
about changing other cultural
norms. If eating more locally
grown vegetables is beneficial,
how can we use CS to make food
production more local and sustain-
able? Is there a role for hydroponics
and indoor Internet of Things–
connected lighting in the built
environment? Do we need new
ways to deliver the knowledge and
skills required to care for microcli-
mates and microenvironments?
GRAND CHALLENGES FOR
ICT IN PROACTIVE HEALTH
At a recent Dagstuhl Perspectives
Workshop, “Exploring Interdisciplin-
ary Grand Challenges for ICT Design
to Support Proactive Health and
Wellbeing” (www.dagstuhl.de/de/
programm/kalender/semhp/?semnr
=14272), participants discussed
potential proactive health systems
and techniques as well as the meta-
level implications of design choices.
If taken to their logical conclu-
sion, what type of culture would
such technologies foster? Does that
align with goals like high qual-
ity of life and democratic liberty?
The workshop also considered
frameworks for building out and
evaluating designs. The consensus
was that designs should evolve from
unconscious to conscious and from
logical to emotional engagement.
Attendants included experts in
medicine, psychology, sports sci-
ence, and sociology as well as CS,
highlighting the multidisciplinary
aspect of proactive health.
A
s a new and comple-
mentary paradigm to
healthcare, proactive
health opens up exciting system
design opportunities and challenges.
Properly harnessed, computing
technology could have as great
an impact on motivating lifestyle
changes that prevent disease as
it has had on existing medical
practices to care for those who are
already sick. To be successful, how-
ever, researchers must carefully
consider novel epistemological and
methodological requirements.
This year’s Dagstuhl workshop
was a first attempt to broadly engage
the CS community as well as ex-
perts in other fields to make the
world healthier by changing cultural
norms. We look forward to continue
working toward this goal.
References
1. T.D. Wang et al., “Aligning
Temporal Data by Sentinel Events:
Discovering Patterns in Electronic
Health Records,Proc. 26th Ann.
SIGCHI Conf. Human Factors in
Computing Systems (CHI 08),
2008, pp. 457466.
2. B. Ma et al., “A Laboratory
Comparison of Computer
Navigation and Individualized
Guides for Distal Radius
Osteotomy,Int’l J. Computer
Assisted Radiology and Surgery,
vol. 9, no. 4, 2014, pp. 713–724.
3. L. Wu et al., “Supporting Crisis
Response with Dynamic
Procedure Aids,Proc. 2014 Conf.
Designing Interactive Systems
(DIS 14), 2014, pp. 315–324.
4. A. Cauchi et al., “Safer ‘5-Key’
Number Entry User Interfaces
Using Differential Formal
Analysis,Proc. 26th Ann. BCS
Interaction Specialist Group Conf.
People and Computers (BCS-HCI 12),
2012, pp. 29–38.
5. C. Tudor-Locke et al., “Revisiting
‘How Many Steps Are Enough?,’”
Medicine & Science in Sports &
Exercise, vol. 40, no. 7, 2008,
pp. S537–S543.
6. A.A. Thorp et al., “Sedentary
Behaviors and Subsequent Health
Outcomes in Adults: A Systematic
Review of Longitudinal Studies,
199 6 2 011, American J. Preventive
Medicine, vol. 41, no. 2, 2011,
pp. 207–215.
7. D. Clarkson, “Walking
Meetings: Taking It to the
Streets,The Guardian, 2 June
2014; www.theguardian.com/
lifeandstyle/2014/jun/02/
walking-meetings-work.
m.c. schraefel is a professor of
computer science and human per-
formance and leads the Human
Systems Design Lab in the School of
Electronics and Computer Science at
the University of Southampton, UK,
where she is also a practicing nutri-
tion and strength/conditioning coach.
Contact her at mc+ieee@ecs.soton.
ac.uk or follow her on Twitter at @
mcphoo.
Elizabeth F. Churchill is director
of human–computer interaction
at eBay Research Labs in San Jose,
California, as well as vice presi-
dent of ACM SIGCHI. Contact her at
churchill@acm.org or follow her on
Twitter at @xeeliz.
Selected CS articles and
columns are available for free at
http://ComputingNow.computer.org.
Editor: Albrecht Schmidt, University of
Stuttgart, Germany; albrecht@computer.org
Citations
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
27 Feb 2016
TL;DR: An in-situ study of a nation-wide workplace step-counting campaign shows that in the context of the workplace steps are a socially negotiated quantity and that participation in the campaign has an impact on those who volunteer to participate and those who opt-out.
Abstract: Sedentary work is a contributing factor to growing obesity levels worldwide. Research shows that step-counters can offer a way to motivate greater physical mobility. We present an in-situ study of a nation-wide workplace step-counting campaign. Our findings show that in the context of the workplace steps are a socially negotiated quantity and that participation in the campaign has an impact on those who volunteer to participate and those who opt-out. We highlight that specific health promotion initiatives do not operate in a vacuum, but are experienced as one out of many efforts offered to the employees. Using a social ecology lens we illustrate how conceptualizing a step-counting campaign as a health promotion rather than a behavior change effort can have implications for what is construed as success.

53 citations


Cites background from "Wellth Creation: Using Computer Sci..."

  • ...CSCW/HCI researchers have already begun discussions of where and how might we set in to improve health (individual/environmental levels) and with which tools (active/passive) [21,32]....

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  • ...A social ecological approach makes it possible to discuss non-use more broadly than has been the case in individually focused studies, where non-use is often understood as a shortfall of the individual [28,32]....

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Abstract: In this multiple case study we analyze solutions based on connected devices in the context of health, social care and wellbeing. Based on the consideration that a solution is a combination of servi ...

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  • ...In the healthcare context, the IoT is perceived as a key enabler for a transition towards preventive care and wellbeing solutions (Free et al., 2013; Schraefel & Churchill, 2014); aimed at the automation of working processes, reducing healthcare expenditures, and enabling novel services for the…...

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
02 May 2019
TL;DR: The aim with this hands-on and cross-domain workshop is for HCI researchers to create innovative designs taking the body as a starting point.
Abstract: Inbodied design is an emerging area in HCI that focuses on using knowledge of the body's internal systems and processes to better inform em-bodied and circum-bodied design spaces. The current challenge in developing an inbodied approach to HCI research/design is domain expertise: accessing sufficient and appropriate information about how the body itself works and how the body's different systems interact dynamically. In this workshop, we review and build on last year's introduction to inbodied foundations, focusing on applying inbodied knowledge to design challenges to explore (1) the foundational pillars of the inbodied design approach, and (2) how inbodied knowledge can affect / alter our understanding of em-bodied and circum-bodied design challenges and better inform design decisions. Our aim with this hands-on and cross-domain workshop is for HCI researchers to create innovative designs taking the body as a starting point

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Cites background from "Wellth Creation: Using Computer Sci..."

  • ...In 2014 mc lead the first Dagstuhl workshop on HCI and proactive Health [5], and has lead to a variety of workshops like [3] and articles like [4] to design from both a better understanding of how the body actually functions; to think about performance as well as prevention, and to focus on intervention design at scale rather than individual alone....

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Book ChapterDOI
02 Sep 2019
TL;DR: The impact of demographics and personality traits on the user experience of driver state visualizations is investigated to support professionals and researchers designing affective in-car information systems.
Abstract: Driver state detection is an emerging topic for automotive user interfaces. Motivated by the trend of self-tracking, one crucial question within this field is how or whether detected states should be displayed. In this work we investigate the impact of demographics and personality traits on the user experience of driver state visualizations. 328 participants experienced three concepts visualizing their current state in a publicly installed driving simulator. Driver age, experience, and personality traits were shown to have impact on visualization preferences. While a continuous display was generally preferred, older respondents and drivers with little experience favored a system with less visual elements. Extroverted participants were more open towards interventions. Our findings lead us to believe that, while users are generally open to driver state detection, its visualization should be adapted to age, driving experience, and personality. This work is meant to support professionals and researchers designing affective in-car information systems.

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  • ...This display variant follows the idea of a quantified self, allowing the user to experiment on themselves through behavioral changes with an intended outcome of self-improvement [11, 42]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Many design efforts in human-computer interaction (HCI) have investigated how to design systems promoting a more active lifestyle, as it has low entry costs and is widely available.
Abstract: Running has become a key fitness activity included in local and national health strategies, as it has low entry costs and is widely available. Training programs intended to help people start running are reported in the mainstream press, attracting interest from people intrigued by the sport's health and leisure benefits. Marketing campaigns have been launched to expand national runner communities and persuade more people to be part of the running experience. Many design efforts in human-computer interaction (HCI) have investigated how to design systems promoting a more active lifestyle.

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Findings indicate a consistent relationship of self-reported sedentary behavior with mortality and with weight gain from childhood to the adult years, however, findings were mixed for associations with disease incidence, weight gain during adulthood, and cardiometabolic risk.
Abstract: Context To systematically review and provide an informative synthesis of findings from longitudinal studies published since 1996 reporting on relationships between self-reported sedentary behavior and device-based measures of sedentary time with health-related outcomes in adults. Evidence acquisition Studies published between 1996 and January 2011 were identified by examining existing literature reviews and by systematic searches in Web of Science, MEDLINE, PubMed, and PsycINFO. English-written articles were selected according to study design, targeted behavior, and health outcome. Evidence synthesis Forty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria; of these, 46 incorporated self-reported measures including total sitting time; TV viewing time only; TV viewing time and other screen-time behaviors; and TV viewing time plus other sedentary behaviors. Findings indicate a consistent relationship of self-reported sedentary behavior with mortality and with weight gain from childhood to the adult years. However, findings were mixed for associations with disease incidence, weight gain during adulthood, and cardiometabolic risk. Of the three studies that used device-based measures of sedentary time, one showed that markers of obesity predicted sedentary time, whereas inconclusive findings have been observed for markers of insulin resistance. Conclusions There is a growing body of evidence that sedentary behavior may be a distinct risk factor, independent of physical activity, for multiple adverse health outcomes in adults. Prospective studies using device-based measures are required to provide a clearer understanding of the impact of sedentary time on health outcomes.

1,293 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The purpose of this article is to reprise, update, and extend the current understanding of dose-response relationships in terms of pedometer-determined PA, to advance evidence-based steps/day standards in both adults and children from a measurement perspective.
Abstract: With continued widespread acceptance of pedometers by both researchers and practitioners, evidence-based steps/day indices are needed to facilitate measurement and motivation applications of physical activity (PA) in public health. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to reprise, update, and extend the current understanding of dose-response relationships in terms of pedometer-determined PA. Any pedometer-based PA guideline presumes an accurate and standardized measure of steps; at this time, industry standards establishing quality control of instrumentation is limited to Japan where public health pedometer applications and the 10,000 steps.d slogan are traceable to the 1960s. Adult public health guidelines promote > or =30 min of at least moderate-intensity daily PA, and this translates to 3000-4000 steps if they are: 1) at least moderate intensity (i.e., > or =100 steps.min); 2) accumulated in at least 10-min bouts; and 3) taken over and above some minimal level of PA (i.e., number of daily steps) below which individuals might be classified as sedentary. A zone-based hierarchy is useful for both measurement and motivation purposes in adults: 1) or =10,000-12,499 steps.d (active); and 5) > or =12,500 steps.d (highly active). Evidence to support youth-specific cutoff points is emerging. Criterion-referenced approaches based on selected health outcomes present the potential for advancing evidence-based steps/day standards in both adults and children from a measurement perspective. A tradeoff that needs to be acknowledged and considered is the impact on motivation when evidence-based cutoff points are interpreted by individuals as unattainable goals.

467 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
06 Apr 2008
TL;DR: An interactive visual tool is presented that complements query formulation by providing operations to align, rank and filter the results, and to visualize estimates of the intervals of validity of the data.
Abstract: Electronic Health Records (EHRs) and other temporal databases contain hidden patterns that reveal important cause-and-effect phenomena. Finding these patterns is a challenge when using traditional query languages and tabular displays. We present an interactive visual tool that complements query formulation by providing operations to align, rank and filter the results, and to visualize estimates of the intervals of validity of the data. Display of patient histories aligned on sentinel events (such as a first heart attack) enables users to spot precursor, co-occurring, and aftereffect events. A controlled study demonstrates the benefits of providing alignment (with a 61% speed improvement for complex tasks). A qualitative study and interviews with medical professionals demonstrates that the interface can be learned quickly and seems to address their needs.

228 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 2014
TL;DR: Compared to navigated DRO, individualized guides were easier to use, faster, and produced more precise correction of ulnar variance and radial inclination.
Abstract: This article presents the results of a multiuser, randomized laboratory trial comparing the accuracy and precision of image-based navigation against individualized guides for distal radius osteotomy (DRO). Six surgeons each performed four DROs using image-based navigation and four DROs using individualized guides in a laboratory setting with plastic phantom replicas of radii from patients who had received DRO as treatment for radial deformity. Time required and correction errors of ulnar variance, radial inclination, and volar tilt were measured. There were no statistically significant differences in the average correction errors. There was a statistically significant difference in the standard deviation of ulnar variance error (2.0 mm for navigation vs. 0.6 mm for guides). There was a statistically significant difference in the standard deviation of radial inclination error ( $$6.1^{\circ }$$ for navigation vs. $$1.4^{\circ }$$ for guides). There were statistically significant differences in the times required (705 s for navigation vs. 214 s for guides) and their standard deviations (144 s for navigation vs. 98 s for guides). Compared to navigated DRO, individualized guides were easier to use, faster, and produced more precise correction of ulnar variance and radial inclination. The combination of true three-dimensional planning, ease of use, and accurate and precise corrective guidance makes the individualized guide technique a promising approach for performing corrective osteotomy of the distal radius.

35 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
10 Sep 2012
TL;DR: The approach combines rigorous simulation of user slip errors with diversity in modelling and analysis methods to evaluate safety critical user interfaces, and provides device manufacturers guidelines to update their device firmware to make their devices safer.
Abstract: Differential formal analysis is a new user interface analytic evaluation method based on stochastic user simulation. The method is particularly valuable for evaluating safety critical user interfaces, which often have subtle programming issues. The approach starts with the identification of operational design features that define the design space to be explored. Two or more analysts are required to analyse all combinations of design features by simulating keystroke sequences containing keying slip errors. Each simulation produces numerical values that rank the design combinations on the basis of their sensitivity to keying slip errors. A systematic discussion of the simulation results is performed for assessing the causes of any discrepancy, either in numerical values or rankings. The process is iterated until outcomes are agreed upon. In short, the approach combines rigorous simulation of user slip errors with diversity in modelling and analysis methods. Although the method can be applied to other types of user interface, it is demonstrated through a case study of 5-key number entry systems, which are a common safety critical user interface style found in many medical infusion pumps and elsewhere. The results uncover critical design issues, and are an important contribution of this paper since the results provide device manufacturers guidelines to update their device firmware to make their devices safer.

34 citations


Frequently Asked Questions (1)
Q1. What are the contributions in this paper?

Thus far, CS has had less impact on proactive health, or what the authors call “ wellth ” —that is, practices that lessen the chances of illness and improve overall physical and mental performance. Given the alarming rise in obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other preventable conditions, the authors believe that using computing technology to support individual aspirations for greater well-being is just as important to society as using it to improve ways to cure disease.