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Journal ArticleDOI

What does language awareness look like? Visual methodologies in language learning and teaching research (2000–2018)

08 Jul 2020-Language Awareness (Routledge)-Vol. 29, Iss: 3, pp 336-352
TL;DR: The acquisition of a language is a complex process as mentioned in this paper, and applied Linguistics research tends to view this process as classroom-based. But it is only more recently that learners, in particular young learners,...
Abstract: The acquisition of a language is a complex process. Applied Linguistics research tends to view this process as classroom-based. It is only more recently that learners, in particular young learners,...
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present the authors' work on dealing with the coexistence of different languages in the classroom and the increasing occurrence of multilingualism in the educational sphere.
Abstract: The increasing occurrence of multilingualism in the educational sphere is challenging teachers to deal with the coexistence of different languages in the classroom. The present paper presents the a...

12 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2021
TL;DR: In this article, a screening study aimed to describe the awareness of native language and foreign language Turkish of işte, which is one of the units included in discourse competence and is necessary for the development of communicative competence in Turkish.
Abstract: For effective communication, the sender and receiver must interpret the linguistic units correctly and appropriately. In this respect, the speakers’ awareness rate of the units in the language is significant in terms of communication quality. This study aimed to describe the awareness of native language and foreign language Turkish of “işte,” which is one of the units included in discourse competence and is necessary for the development of communicative competence in Turkish. To this end, a screening study, one of the qualitative research methods, was conducted. In the study, participants received questions regarding the functions of “işte” with an interview form comprising videos that were structured with expert opinions, and the form’s reliability was measured through a pilot study, which included different functions of “işte.” Upon examining the responses in terms of awareness among the answers given by the two groups of participants, the rate was determined as 69.47%. The awareness rate of native speakers was 72.71%, and the awareness rate of the participants who learned Turkish as a foreign language was 58.08%. When the awareness rates in 12 different contexts are examined comparatively with each other, a similar proportional distribution is observed except for one function. The findings in this study are parallel to the findings of other studies in the field. A significant difference is noted only in the “transfer” function, and the awareness of native speakers is lower in this function than those who learn Turkish as a foreign language. The reason for this finding has been interpreted as the effect of explicit teaching of some functions in a foreign language.

11 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors explored how and why speakers may use the language portrait to make elements of their linguistic repertoire invisible, and explored visual silence as a subversive act of resistance against curricular languages at school.
Abstract: ABSTRACT While the language portrait (LP) is a visual research method that can make visible speakers’ multilingualism, this article considers how and why speakers may use the LP to make elements of their linguistic repertoire invisible. Analysing the portraits created by three primary school students in Luxembourg, I explore why these young people omitted different linguistic resources in the visual representation of their linguistic repertoire. Combining subject-based perspectives on multilingualism grounded in the lived experience of language with scholarship on silence and visual silence, instances of such erasures are explored in light of their formal, content and functional dimensions. More specifically, I analyse how visual silence can function as a strategy to align the LP with how speakers understand their linguistic repertoire and sense of self, and explore visual silence as a subversive act of resistance against curricular languages at school. The conclusion highlights the affordances of the LP as a visual, creative method that can support subject-based approaches to multilingualism and offers speakers a potentially empowering way to visually and discursively affirm their linguistic repertoire, with visual silence constituting an intentional strategy within this process of representation.

1 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
11 May 2021
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a dossie especial "Metodos visuais na investigacao com publicos plurilingues" (MVE).
Abstract: Apresentacao do dossie especial "Metodos visuais na investigacao com publicos plurilingues".

1 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors analyzed visual and verbal narratives of 60 eighth grade students in Hong Kong and found that highly autonomous learners engage in more informal and solitary activities, set concrete goals that appeal to them and employ meta-cognitive strategies to facilitate their language learning.
Abstract: Purpose: Language learning is often conceptualized as a cognitive, psycholinguistic or pedagogical process confined to formal classroom contexts. Scant attention is paid to the autonomy of young learners in out-of-class situations. Methodology: Using an emic approach, this study attempts to fill the research gap by analyzing the visual and verbal narratives of 60 eighth graders in Hong Kong. A comprehensive coding scheme was developed to gauge their degree of autonomy and its intricate relationships with their out-of-class language learning experiences. Findings: Compared to their less autonomous counterparts, the highly autonomous learners are found to engage in more informal and solitary activities, set concrete goals that appeal to them and employ meta-cognitive strategies to facilitate their language learning. Originality: From a methodological standpoint, multi-modal narratives appear to be effective in tapping students’ beliefs and experiences, as this allows the unobstructed flow of their own voices.
References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A meta-analysis of the comparative distance education literature between 1985 and 2002 was conducted by as discussed by the authors, where 232 studies containing 688 independent achievement, attitude, and retention outcomes were analyzed.
Abstract: A meta-analysis of the comparative distance education (DE) literature between 1985 and 2002 was conducted. In total, 232 studies containing 688 independent achievement, attitude, and retention outcomes were analyzed. Overall results indicated effect sizes of essentially zero on all three measures and wide variability. This suggests that many applications of DE outperform their classroom counterparts and that many perform more poorly. Dividing achievement outcomes into synchronous and asynchronous forms of DE produced a somewhat different impression. In general, mean achievement effect sizes for synchronous applications favored classroom instruction, while effect sizes for asynchronous applications favored DE. However, significant heterogeneity remained in each subset.

1,577 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors argue that poststructuralist approaches, exemplified in the work of Jacques Derrida and Judith Butler, add an exploration of previously neglected factors such as the power of categories or the significance of desire in language.
Abstract: This article argues for the relevance of poststructuralist approaches to the notion of a linguistic repertoire and introduces the notion of language portraits as a basis for empirical study of the way in which speakers conceive and represent their heteroglossic repertoires. The first part of the article revisits Gumperz’s notion of a linguistic repertoire, and then considers the challenge to the concept represented by the conditions of super-diversity. It then argues that poststructuralist approaches, exemplified in the work of Jacques Derrida and Judith Butler, add an exploration of previously neglected factors such as the power of categories or the significance of desire in language. In the second part, this article considers a novel methodological approach to studying linguistic repertoires: a multimodal, biographical approach using a language portrait, which involves a close reading of the visual and verbal representation of linguistic experience and linguistic resources. The final part of the article discusses how a poststructuralist approach can contribute to expanding the notion of ‘repertoire’.

407 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors address age-related attainment effects in second language acquisition, posing the question of whether such effects are to be explained in terms of a Critical Period with a predictable and abrupt offset point or in the impact of a wider range of factors.
Abstract: This article addresses age-related attainment effects in second language acquisition, posing the question of whether such effects are to be explained in terms of a Critical Period with a predictable and abrupt offset point or in terms of the impact of a wider range of factors. It attempts to explore this question by focusing on four discussion points in the current debate: (i) the wide use of native-speaker behaviour as the key L2 attainment yardstick; (ii) the degree of compatibility of prevailing views regarding the notion of a critical period for L2 acquisition; (iii) the relative narrowness of much research in this area, where age of L2 onset is often regarded as the crucial if not the only critical variable; and (iv) insights relative to maturational constraints on language acquisition offered by recent brain research. The article concludes that a loosening of the association between ultimate L2 attainment research and Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH) issues would shed more light on L2 attainment in terms both of the comprehensiveness and of the acuity of the insights which would result.

249 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors describes typical stages of a meta-analysis in second language acquisition (SLA) research: defining the research domain, developing a reliable coding scheme, analyzing data, and interpreting results.
Abstract: Applied linguists are increasingly conducting meta-analysis in their substantive domains, because as a quantitative approach for averaging effect sizes across studies, it is more systematic and replicable than traditional, qualitative literature reviews. Additional strengths, such as increased statistical power, moderator analyses, and model testing, have also contributed to its appeal. The current review describes typical stages of a meta-analysis in second language acquisition (SLA) research: (a) defining the research domain, (b) developing a reliable coding scheme, (c) analyzing data, and (d) interpreting results. Each stage has a host of equally reasonable decisions that can be made; each decision will influence the conduct of the meta-analysis, the nature of the results, and the substantive implications of findings for SLA. We highlight a number of benefits and challenges that inform these decisions. In general, when a meta-analysis in applied linguistics is well planned, employs sound statistical methods, and is based on a thorough understanding of relevant theory, it can provide critical information that informs theory as well as future research, practice, and policy.

173 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2014

168 citations