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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.11604/PAMJ.2021.38.230.27325

When it is available, will we take it? Social media users' perception of hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine in Nigeria.

02 Mar 2021-The Pan African medical journal (Pan African Medical Journal)-Vol. 38, Iss: 230, pp 230-230
Abstract: Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic is a global public health threat facing mankind. There is no specific antiviral treatment for COVID-19, and many vaccine candidates are currently under clinical trials. This study aimed to understand the perception of social media users regarding a hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine in Nigeria. Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional survey among social media users in Nigeria in August 2020 using an online questionnaire. The questionnaire includes sections on the demographic characteristics of the respondents and their perception regarding a hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine. A total of 517 respondents completed and returned the informed consent along with the questionnaire electronically. Data were coded and abstracted into Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and loaded into the STATA 14 software for final analysis. Results: the results showed that more than half of the respondents were male 294 (56.9%). Most of the respondents 385 (74.5%) intend to take the COVID-19 vaccine when it becomes available. Among the 132 respondents that would not take the COVID-19 vaccine, the major reason for non-acceptance was unreliability of the clinical trials 49 (37.1%), followed by the belief that their immune system is sufficient to combat the virus 36 (27.3%). We found a significant association between the age of the respondents and the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance (P-value=0.00) as well as geographical location and COVID-19 vaccine acceptance (P-value=0.02). Conclusion: it was observed that most of the respondents were willing to take the COVID-19 vaccine. Our findings also reiterate the need to reassure the public the benefits an effective and safe COVID-19 vaccine can reap for public health. There is a need for national health authorities in Nigeria to ensure public trust is earned and all communities, including the marginalized populations, are properly engaged to ensure an optimal COVID-19 vaccine acceptance.

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Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: Introduction Vaccination has greatly reduced the burden of infectious diseases Only clean water, also considered to be a basic human right, performs better (1) Paradoxically, a vociferous antivaccine lobby thrives today in spite of the undeniable success of vaccination programmes against formerly fearsome diseases that are now rare in developed countries (2) Understandably, vaccine safety gets more public attention than vaccination effectiveness, but independent experts and WHO have shown that vaccines are far safer than therapeutic medicines (2,3) Modern research has spurred the development of less reactogenic products, such as acellular pertussis vaccines and rabies vaccines produced in cell culture Today, vaccines have an excellent safety record and most "vaccine scares" have been shown to be false alarms (4,5) Misguided safety concerns in some countries have led to a fall in vaccination coverage, causing the re-emergence of pertussis and measles (6) Putative vaccine safety issues are commonly reported while reviews of vaccine benefits are few A Medline search over the past five years using the keywords "vaccine risks" scored approximately five times as many hits (2655 versus 557) as a Medline search using "vaccine benefits" as keywords (7) This reflects the fact that negative aspects of vaccination get much more publicity than positive aspects How one addresses the antivaccine movement has been a problem since the time of Jenner The best way in the long term is to refute wrong allegations at the earliest opportunity by providing scientifically valid data This is easier said than done, because the adversary in this game plays according to rules that are not generally those of science This issue will not be further addressed in this paper, which aims to show how vaccines are valuable to both individuals and societies, to present validated facts, and to help redress adverse perceptions Without doubt, vaccines are among the most efficient tools for promoting individual and public health and deserve better press (8) Disease control benefits Eradication Unless an environmental reservoir exists, an eradicated pathogen cannot reemerge, unless accidentally or malevolently reintroduced by humans, allowing vaccination or other preventive measures to be discontinued While eradication may be an ideal goal for an immunization programme, to date only smallpox has been eradicated, allowing discontinuation of routine smallpox immunization globally Potentially, other infectious diseases with no extrahuman reservoir can be eradicated provided an effective vaccine and specific diagnostic tests are available Eradication requires high levels of population immunity in all regions of the world over a prolonged period with adequate surveillance in place (9) The next disease targeted for eradication is polio, which is still a global challenge (10) Although high coverage with oral polio vaccine (OPV) has eliminated type 2 poliovirus globally, transmission of types 1 and 3 continues in limited areas in a few countries OPV-caused paralytic disease, directly or by reversion to virulence, and persistent vaccine-virus excretion in immunodeficient individuals are problems yet to be solved Global use of monovalent type 1 and type 30PV and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) may eventually be required (10) Elimination Diseases can be eliminated locally without global eradication of the causative microorganism In four of six WHO regions, substantial progress has been made in measles elimination; transmission no longer occurs indigenously and importation does not result in sustained spread of the virus (11) Key to this achievement is more than 95% population immunity through a two-dose vaccination regimen Combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine could also eliminate and eventually eradicate rubella and mumps (11) Increasing measles immunization levels in Africa, where coverage averaged only 67% in 2004, is essential for eradication of this disease …

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Topics: Vaccination (65%), Herd immunity (58%), Measles (53%) ... read more

81 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S41182-021-00344-W
Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance is a hidden threat lurking behind the COVID-19 pandemic which has claimed thousands of lives prior to the emergence of the global outbreak. With a pandemic on the scale of COVID-19, antimicrobial resistance has the potential to become a double-edged sword with the overuse of antibiotics having the potential of taking us back to the pre-antibiotic era. Antimicrobial resistance is majorly attributed to widespread and unnecessary use of antibiotics, among other causes, which has facilitated the emergence and spread of resistant pathogens. Our study aimed to conduct a rapid review of national treatment guidelines for COVID-19 in 10 African countries (Ghana, Kenya, Uganda, Nigeria, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Liberia, Ethiopia, and Rwanda) and examined its implication for antimicrobial resistance response on the continent. Our findings revealed that various antibiotics, such as azithromycin, doxycycline, clarithromycin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, gentamicin, benzylpenicillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, cefepime, vancomycin, meropenem, and cefuroxime among others, were recommended for use in the management of COVID-19. This is worrisome in that COVID-19 is a viral disease and only a few COVID-19 patients would have bacterial co-infection. Our study highlighted the need to emphasize prudent and judicious use of antibiotics in the management of COVID-19 in Africa.

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Topics: Antibiotic resistance (55%)

7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ECLINM.2021.101113
02 Sep 2021-EClinicalMedicine
Abstract: Background High rates of vaccination worldwide are required to establish a herd immunity and stop the current COVID-19 pandemic evolution. Vaccine hesitancy is a major barrier in achieving herd immunity across different populations. This study sought to conduct a systematic review of the current literature regarding attitudes and hesitancy to receiving COVID-19 vaccination worldwide. Methods A systematic literature search of PubMed and Web of Science was performed on July 5th, 2021, using developed keywords. Inclusion criteria required the study to (1) be conducted in English; (2) investigate attitudes, hesitancy, and/or barriers to COVID-19 vaccine acceptability among a given population; (3) utilize validated measurement techniques; (4) have the full text paper available and be peer-reviewed prior to final publication. Findings Following PRISMA guidelines, 209 studies were included. The Newcastle Ottawa (NOS) scale for cross-sectional studies was used to assess the quality of the studies. Overall, vaccine acceptance rates ranged considerably between countries and between different time points, with Arabian countries showing the highest hesitancy rates compared with other parts of the world. Interpretation A variety of different factors contributed to increased hesitancy, including having negative perception of vaccine efficacy, safety, convenience, and price. Some of the consistent socio-demographic groups that were identified to be associated with increased hesitancy included: women, younger participants, and people who were less educated, had lower income, had no insurance, living in a rural area, and self-identified as a racial/ethnic minority. Funding None

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Topics: Vaccine efficacy (54%), Population (52%)

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/VACCINES9080828
27 Jul 2021-Vaccine
Abstract: A high worldwide SARS-CoV-2 vaccine coverage must be attained to stop the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we assessed the level of willingness of Mozambicans to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Data were collected between 11 and 20 March 2021, through a self-administered online survey. Of the 1878 respondents, 30.1% were healthcare workers, 58.3% were aged between 18 and 35 years, 60% were male, and 38.5% were single. Up to 43% had been tested for COVID-19 and 29% had tested positive. Overall vaccine acceptability was 71.4% (86.6% among healthcare workers, 64.8% among other respondents; p < 0.001). Reasons for vaccine hesitancy included: fear of vaccine side effects (29.6%) and the belief that the vaccine is not effective (52%). The acceptability of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine increased with increasing vaccine efficacy. Using logistic regression, determinants for acceptability of the vaccine were: older age, a past COVID-19 test, a concern of becoming (re)infected by COVID-19, having a chronic disease, and considering vaccination important for personal and community health. In conclusion, vaccine acceptability in Mozambique was relatively high among healthcare workers but significantly lower in the rest of the population. This suggests that there is a need to educate the general population about SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and its importance.

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Topics: Vaccine efficacy (69%), Vaccination (57%), Population (52%)

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.4269/AJTMH.21-0231
Arash Nemat1, Arash Nemat2, Ayesha Bahez1, Mohibullah Salih1  +6 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: COVID-19 has been causing a global threat to almost all countries for more than one year. Vaccination of the majority of any country's population is considered to be an effective way of controlling the spread and mortality of this infection. Therefore, it is important to assess the public's willingness to be vaccinated against COVID-19. In this study, we evaluated the public willingness and hesitancy to take the vaccine in Afghanistan, during December 2020 and January 2021. Sociodemographic data, awareness on vaccine production, vaccine availability, willingness and hesitancy to take the COVID-19 vaccine were collected. The Statistical Package for Social Studies (SPSS) version 25 was used for data analysis. A total of 806 complete responses were received. Majority of the respondents were ≤ 40 years old (89.8%) and male (72.7%). Less than two-thirds (509; 63%) of the participants reported willingness to take the vaccine when it becomes available, whereas almost one-third (297; 37%) of them were hesitant to take the COVID-19 vaccine. More female than male respondents were willing to take the vaccine (χ2 = 13.176, P value = 0.001). A significant portion of the public were not willing to take the COVID-19 vaccine. In a country like Afghanistan, which already has a low coverage of vaccination, this could pose a challenge for the vaccination program against COVID-19 to be effective. The Ministry of Public Health should work on public trust and change people's mindset about vaccine reality and efficacy to prevent the rejection of this health intervention.

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Topics: Vaccination (55%), Population (51%), Public health (51%)

1 Citations


References
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Open accessDOI: 10.23750/ABM.V91I1.9397
19 Mar 2020-
Abstract: The World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020, has declared the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak a global pandemic (1). At a news briefing , WHO Director-General, Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, noted that over the past 2 weeks, the number of cases outside China increased 13-fold and the number of countries with cases increased threefold. Further increases are expected. He said that the WHO is "deeply concerned both by the alarming levels of spread and severity and by the alarming levels of inaction," and he called on countries to take action now to contain the virus. "We should double down," he said. "We should be more aggressive." [...].

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2,156 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.7150/IJBS.45221
Bao-Liang Zhong, Wei Luo1, Hai Mei Li2, Qian Qian Zhang2  +5 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Unprecedented measures have been adopted to control the rapid spread of the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic in China. People's adherence to control measures is affected by their knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) towards COVID-19. In this study, we investigated Chinese residents' KAP towards COVID-19 during the rapid rise period of the outbreak. An online sample of Chinese residents was successfully recruited via the authors' networks with residents and popular media in Hubei, China. A self-developed online KAP questionnaire was completed by the participants. The knowledge questionnaire consisted of 12 questions regarding the clinical characteristics and prevention of COVID-19. Assessments on residents' attitudes and practices towards COVID-19 included questions on confidence in winning the battle against COVID-19 and wearing masks when going out in recent days. Among the survey completers (n=6910), 65.7% were women, 63.5% held a bachelor degree or above, and 56.2% engaged in mental labor. The overall correct rate of the knowledge questionnaire was 90%. The majority of the respondents (97.1%) had confidence that China can win the battle against COVID-19. Nearly all of the participants (98.0%) wore masks when going out in recent days. In multiple logistic regression analyses, the COVID-19 knowledge score (OR: 0.75-0.90, P<0.001) was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of negative attitudes and preventive practices towards COVID-2019. Most Chinese residents of a relatively high socioeconomic status, in particular women, are knowledgeable about COVID-19, hold optimistic attitudes, and have appropriate practices towards COVID-19. Health education programs aimed at improving COVID-19 knowledge are helpful for Chinese residents to hold optimistic attitudes and maintain appropriate practices. Due to the limited sample representativeness, we must be cautious when generalizing these findings to populations of a low socioeconomic status.

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Topics: Socioeconomic status (50%)

1,173 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2471/BLT.07.040089
FE Andre1, Robert Booy, H.L. Bock2, John D. Clemens3  +8 moreInstitutions (10)
Abstract: In low-income countries, infectious diseases still account for a large proportion of deaths, highlighting health inequities largely caused by economic differences. Vaccination can cut health-care costs and reduce these inequities. Disease control, elimination or eradication can save billions of US dollars for communities and countries. Vaccines have lowered the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and will control cervical cancer. Travellers can be protected against "exotic" diseases by appropriate vaccination. Vaccines are considered indispensable against bioterrorism. They can combat resistance to antibiotics in some pathogens. Noncommunicable diseases, such as ischaemic heart disease, could also be reduced by influenza vaccination. Immunization programmes have improved the primary care infrastructure in developing countries, lowered mortality in childhood and empowered women to better plan their families, with consequent health, social and economic benefits. Vaccination helps economic growth everywhere, because of lower morbidity and mortality. The annual return on investment in vaccination has been calculated to be between 12% and 18%. Vaccination leads to increased life expectancy. Long healthy lives are now recognized as a prerequisite for wealth, and wealth promotes health. Vaccines are thus efficient tools to reduce disparities in wealth and inequities in health.

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Topics: Global health (54%), Vaccination (54%), Public health (53%) ... read more

737 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.4161/HV.24657
Eve Dubé1, Caroline Laberge, Maryse Guay, Paul Bramadat  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Despite being recognized as one of the most successful public health measures, vaccination is perceived as unsafe and unnecessary by a growing number of individuals. Lack of confidence in vaccines is now considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. Vaccine hesitancy is believed to be responsible for decreasing vaccine coverage and an increasing risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks and epidemics. This review provides an overview of the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy. First, we will characterize vaccine hesitancy and suggest the possible causes of the apparent increase in vaccine hesitancy in the developed world. Then we will look at determinants of individual decision-making about vaccination.

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Topics: Vaccination (56%)

712 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/318323A0
Roy M. Anderson1, Robert M. May1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1985-Nature
Abstract: An understanding of the relationship between the transmission dynamics of infectious agents and herd immunity provides a template for the design of effective control programmes based on mass immunization. Mathematical models of the spread and persistence of infection provide important insights into the problem of how best to protect the community against disease.

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580 Citations