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Journal ArticleDOI

Who’s in charge? End-users challenge graphic designers’ intuition through visual verbal co-design

06 Sep 2017-Design Journal (Routledge)-Vol. 20
TL;DR: The findings suggest that co-designing with end-users, challenges graphic designers’ use of intuition, as new ways of categorizing asthma information material were revealed that previous design-led processes had overlooked.
Abstract: This paper aims to understand how co-design influences the design process, by presenting a case study where graphic designers and end-users co-designed asthma information. Three co-design activitie...
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Journal ArticleDOI
29 Oct 2020
TL;DR: This article used dramaturgy as a defamiliarising method for uncovering professional graphic designers' perceptions of stakeholders, and used trained actors as "proxy designers" to motivate a troupe of trained actors to re-perform the narratives during a series of performance workshops.
Abstract: Graphic design, as a specific research discipline, has been largely underrepresented in academia, with the literature suggesting this is partially due to difficulties in researching its professional practitioners. Acknowledging such hurdles, this article discusses an experimental study that used dramaturgy as a defamiliarising method for uncovering professional graphic designers’ perceptions of stakeholders. The study collected graphic designer narratives from online forums as well as dramaturgically informed interviews with professional practitioners. The graphic designers’ narratives were converted into a script and used to motivate a troupe of trained actors, who re-performed the narratives during a series of performance workshops. The article argues that this use of trained actors as ‘proxy designers’ created a refractive form of defamiliarisation, allowing previously obfuscated narratives about graphic designers’ perceptions of stakeholders to emerge. Presenting the study as a prototype to inform future research into graphic design and other elusive creative practices, the article also cautions that the amount of defamiliarisation used must be evaluated against the desired outcomes.

8 citations


Cites background from "Who’s in charge? End-users challeng..."

  • ...Expressing the challenges of investigating the profession, some have highlighted graphic designs’ reliance on intangible elements such as intuition (Bennett, 2006; Taffe, 2017)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors present a user-centered design framework for disaster risk visualisation, which is based on existing visualisation frameworks and includes three phases: the Define phase, which aims to define and characterise the disaster risk management context and end-user group who will benefit from a visualisation; the Design phase is highly iterative and presents an opportunity to test how users interpret different design elements; and the Refine phase is evaluated how users understand, respond to, and make decisions based on the visualisation.
Abstract: Visualisations are powerful communication tools that have the potential to help societies assess and manage natural hazard and disaster risks. However, the diversity of risk management contexts and user characteristics is a challenge to develop understandable and useable visualisations. We conducted a systematic literature review to understand the current state developing disaster risk visualisations following design best practices and accounting for the heterogeneity between end-users and disaster risk contexts. We find that, despite being widely recommended, tailoring visualisations to users through the process of user-centred design remains a relatively unexplored topic within disaster risk. To address this, we present a unifying user-centred design framework for disaster risk visualisation, based on existing visualisation frameworks. The framework contains three phases: the Define phase, which aims to define and characterise the disaster risk management context and end-user group who will benefit from a visualisation; the Design phase, which is highly iterative and presents an opportunity to test how users interpret different design elements; and the Refine phase, which focuses on evaluating how users understand, respond to, and make decisions based on the visualisation. The framework is sufficiently flexible to be applied to any disaster risk management and natural hazard context to identify challenges and design effective disaster risk visualisations that are understandable and useable. • Existing evidence shows that tailoring visualised information improves its effectivity. • However, we find that tailoring may not be sufficiently widespread in practice. • We present a user-centred design framework for disaster risk visualisation.

7 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study aims to contribute to the theory of intuition and thus provide an alternative perspective to the ‘unprincipled’ behaviours of the designer and reveal ‘design moves’ that go hand in hand with the cognitive features of intuition.
Abstract: Although the concept of intuition is quite popular within design research today, it still needs to be thoroughly investigated. The paper in this sense aims to discuss the concept of intuition and e...

7 citations


Cites background from "Who’s in charge? End-users challeng..."

  • ...…in design research (Burnette n.d.; Rust 2004; Kheiri, Daneshpoor, and Khanmohammadi 2013; Kheirollahi 2012; Jerrard, Martin, and Wright 2017; Ferronato, Ruecker, and Scaletsky 2017; Taffe 2017; Tovey 1997; Davey 2008; Durling 1999; Fiscus 2012; Taura and Nagai 2017; Tonetto and Tamminen 2015)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
08 Jul 2021
TL;DR: Graphic design is a specialized form of creative practice in which images, typography, texts, shapes and other visual elements are created, selected, developed and integrated to form a coherent who...
Abstract: Graphic design is a specialized form of creative practice in which images, typography, texts, shapes and other visual elements are created, selected, developed and integrated to form a coherent who...

7 citations


Cites background from "Who’s in charge? End-users challeng..."

  • ...In response, Taffe (2017) found that co-designing with end users can yield more creative solutions if graphic designers relinquish creative control while still relying firmly on their intuition during the creative process....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
24 Jun 2008-Codesign
TL;DR: The evolution in design research from a user-centred approach to co-designing is changing the roles of the designer, the researcher and the person formerly known as the "user" as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Designers have been moving increasingly closer to the future users of what they design and the next new thing in the changing landscape of design research has become co-designing with your users. But co-designing is actually not new at all, having taken distinctly different paths in the US and in Europe. The evolution in design research from a user-centred approach to co-designing is changing the roles of the designer, the researcher and the person formerly known as the ‘user’. The implications of this shift for the education of designers and researchers are enormous. The evolution in design research from a user-centred approach to co-designing is changing the landscape of design practice as well, creating new domains of collective creativity. It is hoped that this evolution will support a transformation toward more sustainable ways of living in the future.

3,692 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present and justify guidelines for using the case study research methodology in honours, masters and PhD research theses, and so it should interest candidates and their supervisors.
Abstract: Qualitative research has not been viewed as a rigorous alternative to established quantitative methods in postgraduate marketing research. However, this paper reports on the Australian development of a successful, structured approach to using the case study methodology in postgraduate research. Its aim is to present and justify guidelines for using the case study research methodology in honours, masters and PhD research theses, and so it should interest candidates and their supervisors. First, appropriate positions on a range of scientific paradigms and core issues of induction and deduction are established. Then implementation of the case study methodology is examined, including the numbers of case studies and of interviews. Unusual but effective uses of theoretical replication to rigorously analyze case study data are illustrated from postgraduate theses. Finally, a framework is provided for constructing a thesis, emphasizing the key methodology chapter.

1,165 citations


"Who’s in charge? End-users challeng..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Case study is one method within the constructivist gamut, being recommended for contemporary issues where accepted principles and constructs are yet to be established (Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Perry, 1998)....

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Book ChapterDOI
25 Apr 2002
TL;DR: There is a change from a user-centered design process to that of participatory experiences, a shift in attitude from designing for users to one of designing with users, and a new design movement that will require new ways of thinking, feeling and working.
Abstract: As a social scientist trained both in psychology and anthropology, I was one of these “experiments.” I began to serve the design process in 1982. In the 1980s I played the role of the human factors practitioner, or “user advocate.” My role was to know the user and to translate that knowing into principles and prescriptions that the designers with whom I worked could understand and use. We called this the user-centered design process. As I learned ways to help make products and information systems more usable, I also studied the designers, especially the ways they visually communicated with each other.

697 citations

Book ChapterDOI
24 Sep 1992
TL;DR: This research aims to create a new foundation for a science of design by focusing on the shift in design from language as description towards language as action and an awareness of language games and the ordinary language philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein.
Abstract: specification. Floyd argues that the product-oriented view leaves the relationship between programs and the living human world entirely unexplored, providing no way to check the relevance of the specification or to accommodate learning and communication. As a remedy to these anomalies, Floyd sees a new process-oriented paradigm in software engineering with a focus on human learning and communication in both the use and development of the software. She views the products of this process as tools or working environments for people and not as pieces code or an abstract software system. Hence, the quality of the product depends on its relevance, suitability, or adequacy in practical use. Quality cannot be reduced to features of the product such as reliability and efficiency. From this perspective, prototyping can be seen as an alternative or complement to traditional, more formalized, and detached descriptions. Another important example of new tendencies in the design of computer-based systems is the development of a new philosophical foundation in the tradition of hermeneutics and phenomenology proposed by Hubert and Stuart Dreyfus (1986) and Terry Winograd and Fernando Flores (1986). This philosophical endeavor focuses on the differences between human activity and computer performance. In doing so, it departs from other traditions by focusing on what people do with computers, how in cooperation with one another they use computers, and what they might do better with computers. In this approach, the origin of design is in involved practical use and understanding, not detached reflection, and design is seen as an interaction between understanding and creation. This research aims not to create just another design method but to create a new foundation for a science of design. In the following, I will propose that this new understanding can be buttressed by an awareness of language games and the ordinary language philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein. My focus is on the shift in design from language as description towards language as action. Rethinking Systems Descriptions A few years ago I was struck by something I had not noticed before. While thinking about how perspectives make us select certain aspects of reality as important in a description, I realized I had completely overlooked my own presumption that descriptions in one way or another are mirror images of a given reality. My earlier reasoning had been that because there are different interests in the world, we should always question the objectivity of design choices that claimed to flow from design as a process of rational decision making. Hence, I had argued that we needed to create descriptions from different perspectives in order to form a truer picture. I did not, however, question the Cartesian epis ontology of an inner world of experiences (mind) and an outer world of objects (external reality). Nor did I question the assumption that language was our way of mirroring this outer world of real objects. By focusing on which objects and which relations should be represented in a systems description, I took for granted the Cartesian mind-body dualism that Wittgenstein had so convincingly rejected in Philosophical Investigations (1953). Hence, although my purpose was the opposite, my perspective blinded me to the subjectivity of craft, artistry, passion, love, and care in the system descriptions. Our experiences with the UTOPIA project caused me to re-examine my philosophical assumptions. Working with the end users of the design, the graphics workers, some design methods failed while others succeeded. Requirement specifications and systems descriptions based on information from interviews were not very successful. Improvements came when we made joint visits to interesting plants, trade shows, and vendors and had discussions with other users; when we dedicated considerably more time to learning from each other, designers from graphics workers and graphics workers from designers; when we started to use design-by-doing methods and descriptions such as mockups and work organization games; and when we started to understand and use traditional tools as a design ideal for computer-based systems. The turnaround can be understood in the light of two Wittgensteinian lessons. The first is not to underestimate the importance of skill in design. As Peter Winch (1958) has put it, "A cook is not a man who first has a vision of a pie and then tries to make it. He is a man skilled in cookery, and both his projects and his achievements spring from that skill." The second is not to mistake the role of description methods in design: Wittgenstein argues convincingly that what a picture describes is determined by its use. In the following I will illustrate how our "new" UTOPIAN design methods may be understood from a Wittgensteinian position, that is, why design-by-doing and a skill-based participatory design process works. More generally, I will argue that design tools such as models, prototypes, mockups, descriptions, and representations act as reminders and paradigm cases for our contemplation of future computer-based systems and their use. Such design tools are effective because they recall earlier experiences to mind. It is in this sense that we should understand them as representations. I will begin with a few words on practice, the alternative to the "picture theory of reality".

582 citations


"Who’s in charge? End-users challeng..." refers background in this paper

  • ...This study trialled visual verbal activities and games based on an extensive discussion on the value of design and language games that promote interchange between end-user and designer knowledge (Ehn, 1993; Johansson, 2006; Tomes, Oates, & Armstrong, 1998; Ulusoy, 1999; Zender & Crutcher, 2007). Here, the field of co-design has been influenced by theories of language games and related communicative actions from ethnography and post-structural philosophy. The idea that playing games to transfer tacit knowledge of people and leads to common understand can be traced back to Plato’s adage that, “You can learn more about a person in an hour of play than in a year of conversation” (Quoted in Lancefield, 2006, p. 1). Ivey and Sanders (2006) describe the use of storytelling games in co-design “as an effective method of prompting social interaction by generating acquaintance” (p.26). Workshop One included a game based on Ehn’s (1993) recommendation that the use of playful games where everyone has fun are effective icebreakers....

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  • ...This study trialled visual verbal activities and games based on an extensive discussion on the value of design and language games that promote interchange between end-user and designer knowledge (Ehn, 1993; Johansson, 2006; Tomes, Oates, & Armstrong, 1998; Ulusoy, 1999; Zender & Crutcher, 2007). Here, the field of co-design has been influenced by theories of language games and related communicative actions from ethnography and post-structural philosophy. The idea that playing games to transfer tacit knowledge of people and leads to common understand can be traced back to Plato’s adage that, “You can learn more about a person in an hour of play than in a year of conversation” (Quoted in Lancefield, 2006, p. 1). Ivey and Sanders (2006) describe the use of storytelling games in co-design “as an effective method of prompting social interaction by generating acquaintance” (p....

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  • ...This study trialled visual verbal activities and games based on an extensive discussion on the value of design and language games that promote interchange between end-user and designer knowledge (Ehn, 1993; Johansson, 2006; Tomes, Oates, & Armstrong, 1998; Ulusoy, 1999; Zender & Crutcher, 2007)....

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  • ...…This study trialled visual verbal activities and games based on an extensive discussion on the value of design and language games that promote interchange between end-user and designer knowledge (Ehn, 1993; Johansson, 2006; Tomes, Oates, & Armstrong, 1998; Ulusoy, 1999; Zender & Crutcher, 2007)....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Aug 2006
TL;DR: This paper discusses the use of exploratory design games to organise participation in participatory design projects and sheds light on the repertoire of possibilities for designers to be aware of when creating their own exploratoryDesign games.
Abstract: The dogma of Participatory Design is the direct involvement of people in the shaping of future artefacts. Thus central for designers within this field are the staging of a design process involving participation of people. Organising collaboration between people having various competencies and interests is challenging and therefore designers need frameworks, which can accommodate this work. This paper discusses the use of exploratory design games to organise participation in participatory design projects. Examples of different exploratory design games as sources of inspiration are presented. Through a comparison of different exploratory design games the paper sheds light on the repertoire of possibilities for designers to be aware of when creating their own exploratory design games.

378 citations


"Who’s in charge? End-users challeng..." refers background in this paper

  • ...There is broad agreement in the literature that design is an act of individual creation to which verbalization and logical analysis are seen as only peripherally relevant, but a combination of visual and verbal elements is argued to be preferable (Brandt, 2006; Tomes, Oates, & Armstrong, 1998)....

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