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Journal ArticleDOI

Who were the Türkmen of Ottoman and Safavid lands? An overlooked early modern identity

07 Oct 2020-Der Islam (De Gruyter)-Vol. 97, Iss: 2, pp 476-499
TL;DR: The authors examines the history of the term Türkmen in western Asia, and asks how its significance changed with the spread of Ottoman and Safavid power in the early modern era.
Abstract: Abstract This essay examines the history of the term Türkmen in western Asia, and asks how its significance changed with the spread of Ottoman and Safavid power in the early modern era. Although it always maintained its core connotation of uncouth tribes, the meaning of the term became more complex (and at times conflicting) after the Mongol period, a dynamic which this paper highlights by comparing it to the Oghūz identity. Poets and court historians developed novel ways of deploying both terms to explain the political dominance of Turkish speakers in the region. When Türkmen gained new import as a political label during the Aq Quyūnlū period, it came to have two contradictory connotations: tribal rebellion and the state-building aspirations of the Anatolian Türkmen dynasties. Both were marginalized by the subsequent establishment of Ottoman and Safavid power in the 16th century. However, the term continued to be widely used to describe Turkish-speaking tribes in the region, and manuscripts from the Caucasus version of the Köroğlu epic tradition show how it came to represent an autonomous tribal alternative to the new imperial status quo of the 17th century.
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01 Jan 2002

296 citations

Reference EntryDOI
28 Jun 2016

293 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , Nader Shah Afshar's attempts to legitimize his rule by dint of his Turkic background are examined. But they do not consider how the Safavid collapse led to new claims to Iranian and Islamic political power.
Abstract: Abstract This essay examines Nader Shah Afshar's attempts to legitimize his rule by dint of his Turkic background. Over the course of his rise to power and reign, Nader consistently argued that his Afshar and Turkman affiliations granted him the right to rule over Iranian territory as an equal to his Ottoman, Mughal, and Central Asian contemporaries. Aided by his chief secretary and court historian, Mīrzā Mahdī Astarābādī, Nader's assertions paralleled those found in popular narratives about the history of Oghuz Turks in Islamic lands. This element of Nader's political identity is often overlooked by historians because it did not outlive the brief Afsharid period, but it demonstrates how the Safavid collapse led to the circulation of dynamic new claims to Iranian and Islamic political power.
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Book
01 Jan 1974
TL;DR: In this article, a concluding volume of the venture of islam, Marshall G. S. Hodgson describes the second flowering of Islam: the Safavi, Tmuri, and Ottoman empires.
Abstract: In this concluding volume of the venture of islam, Marshall G. S. Hodgson describes the second flowering of islam: the Safavi, Tmuri, and Ottoman empires. The final part of the volume analyzes the widespread islamic heritage in today's world.

409 citations

Book
01 Jan 1974
TL;DR: The classical age of Islam and the expansion of islam in the middle periods of Islam are discussed in this article, and the gunpowder empires and modern times are considered in this paper.
Abstract: V. 1. The classical age of Islam -- v. 2. The expansion of islam in the middle periods -- v. 3. The gunpowder empires and modern times.

400 citations

01 Jan 2002

296 citations

Reference EntryDOI
28 Jun 2016

293 citations