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Journal ArticleDOI

Whose Pharaohs? Archaeology, Museums, and Egyptian National Identity from Napoleon to World War I

01 Jan 2002-History: Reviews of New Books (Taylor & Francis Group)-Vol. 31, Iss: 1, pp 39-39
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors focus on the period between 1798 and 1914 and examine how European imperialists and Egyptian nationalists approached the history of Egyptian antiquity and how they constructed it for elite or public consumption through museums and books.
Abstract: Many tourists marvel at Egypt’s ancient historical wealth but are oblivious to the existence of Egyptians, and many of the latter feel little it‘ any connection to an alienized, Pharaonic past. It is the history of these modem-day disjunctions that Donald Malcolm Reid seeks 10 comprehend and rectify in his book Whow Phanrohs? By focusing on the period between 1798 and 1914, Reid looks at how European imperialists and Egyptian nationalists approached the history of Egyptian antiquity and how they constructed it for elite or public consumption through museums and book\\. The book (in two parts and eight chapters) is based o n extensive research into European and Arabic sources that have not been previously used. I t traces the growth in European interest in E.,gyptian archaeology from Champollion to Mariette and Maspero. Reid deftly and engagingly chronicles the race among various curiitors and art collectors to possess Egyptian artifacts, ignoring all the while the rights of modem Egyptians-all under the pretext that the latter were not civilized enough to appreciate their past. Subsequently, he traces the cultural politics surrounding the establishment of various museums in Egypt and links this to the overall struggle between emerging nationalist sentiments in Egypt and imperial rule and designs for the country. From this perspective, he explores the tense and difficult relation between a science claiming objectivity and universality (archaeology) and the subjective politics of nationalism and imperialism. But what is perhaps most appealing about the book is that Reid writes Egyptians back into the history of Egyptian archaeology. In particular, he elucidates how Egyptian intellectuals, such as al-Tahtawi, politicians, such as Khedive Isma’il, and archaeologists, such as Ahmad Kamal, are an integral part of that history. He expands the history of Egyptian museums to encompass not only Pharaonic archaeology but also the Greco-Roman, Coptic, and Islamic eras. In expanding our scope in this manner, Reid contextualizes and reevaluates the extent of European archaeological accomplishments vis-h-vis those of their Egyptian counterparts. In all these ways, Reid bypasses all previous histories of Egyptian museums and archaeology and introduces new ideas and knowledge about those narratives. That he does so in a lucid narrative form makes Who.se Phuraohs? accessible for an educated general audience. However, it would most surely be of great use to historians and graduate students of Egyptian history.
Citations
More filters
01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: Thematiche [38].
Abstract: accademiche [38]. Ada [45]. Adrian [45]. African [56]. Age [39, 49, 61]. Al [23]. Al-Rawi [23]. Aldous [68]. Alex [15]. Allure [46]. America [60, 66]. American [49, 69, 61, 52]. ancienne [25]. Andreas [28]. Angela [42]. Animals [16]. Ann [26]. Anna [19, 47]. Annotated [46]. Annotations [28]. Anti [37]. Anti-Copernican [37]. Antibiotic [64]. Anxiety [51]. Apocalyptic [61]. Archaeology [26]. Ark [36]. Artisan [32]. Asylum [48]. Atri [54]. Audra [65]. Australia [41]. Authorship [15]. Axelle [29].

978 citations

Book
22 Jan 2019
TL;DR: Scattered Finds as discussed by the authors explores the politics, personalities and social histories that linked fieldwork in Egypt with the varied organizations around the world that received finds, including Victorian municipal museums and women's suffrage campaigns in the UK, and from university museums in Japan to new institutions in post-independence Ghana.
Abstract: Between the 1880s and 1980s, British excavations at locations across Egypt resulted in the discovery of hundreds of thousands of ancient objects that were subsequently sent to some 350 institutions worldwide. These finds included unique discoveries at iconic sites such as the tombs of ancient Egypt's first rulers at Abydos, Akhenaten and Nefertiti’s city of Tell el-Amarna and rich Roman Era burials in the Fayum. Scattered Finds explores the politics, personalities and social histories that linked fieldwork in Egypt with the varied organizations around the world that received finds. Case studies range from Victorian municipal museums and women’s suffrage campaigns in the UK, to the development of some of the USA’s largest institutions, and from university museums in Japan to new institutions in post-independence Ghana. By juxtaposing a diversity of sites for the reception of Egyptian cultural heritage over the period of a century, Alice Stevenson presents new ideas about the development of archaeology, museums and the construction of Egyptian heritage. She also addresses the legacy of these practices, raises questions about the nature of the authority over such heritage today, and argues for a stronger ethical commitment to its stewardship.

96 citations

Dissertation
17 Dec 2013
TL;DR: This paper present a demarche litteraire comparatiste, axee sur dix romans rattaches, en theorie, au genre historique, and traitant tous de l’Antiquite.
Abstract: Ce projet de these, choisi en vue de l’obtention du doctorat des litteratures francaise, francophones et comparee, consiste en une demarche litteraire comparatiste, axee sur dix romans rattaches, en theorie, au genre historique, et traitant tous de l’Antiquite. Le corpus des œuvres, etabli sur une periode recouvrant les XIXe et XXe siecles, comprend quatre romans francais : Les Martyrs de Chateaubriand (1809), Le Roman de la momie de Theophile Gautier (1858), Salammbo de Gustave Flaubert (1862), Memoires d’Hadrien de Marguerite Yourcenar (1951) ; et six romans etrangers : The Last Days of Pompeii d’Edward G. Bulwer-Lytton (1834), Quo vadis ? de Henryk Sienkiewicz (1895), Siddhartha. Eine Indische Dichtung de Hermann Hesse (1922), Der Tod des Vergil de Hermann Broch (1945), Aztec de Gary Jennings (1980) et Creation de Gore Vidal (1981). Cet echantillonnage representatif du genre archeo-fictif tient compte principalement de la notoriete des romans historiques, de leur diversite geographique et culturelle, et de leur adherence au sujet de these. En effet, chaque roman s’apparente a une tentative remarquable de reconstitution « archeologico-litteraire » d’une civilisation antique aneantie par l’erosion du temps : l’Egypte ancienne, Carthage, Rome, Pompei, la Grece, la Perse, l’Inde, le Cathay (la Chine antique) et l’empire azteque. « Les destinees et les croyances religieuses » constituent le sujet unificateur qui relie ces romans a leur contexte litteraire. Le probleme generique du roman historique ; le substrat religieux dans l’anastylose archeofictive ; la transfiguration religieuse des lieux et du langage dessinent les principales orientations litteraires de la these.

75 citations

References
More filters
01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: Thematiche [38].
Abstract: accademiche [38]. Ada [45]. Adrian [45]. African [56]. Age [39, 49, 61]. Al [23]. Al-Rawi [23]. Aldous [68]. Alex [15]. Allure [46]. America [60, 66]. American [49, 69, 61, 52]. ancienne [25]. Andreas [28]. Angela [42]. Animals [16]. Ann [26]. Anna [19, 47]. Annotated [46]. Annotations [28]. Anti [37]. Anti-Copernican [37]. Antibiotic [64]. Anxiety [51]. Apocalyptic [61]. Archaeology [26]. Ark [36]. Artisan [32]. Asylum [48]. Atri [54]. Audra [65]. Australia [41]. Authorship [15]. Axelle [29].

978 citations

Book
22 Jan 2019
TL;DR: Scattered Finds as discussed by the authors explores the politics, personalities and social histories that linked fieldwork in Egypt with the varied organizations around the world that received finds, including Victorian municipal museums and women's suffrage campaigns in the UK, and from university museums in Japan to new institutions in post-independence Ghana.
Abstract: Between the 1880s and 1980s, British excavations at locations across Egypt resulted in the discovery of hundreds of thousands of ancient objects that were subsequently sent to some 350 institutions worldwide. These finds included unique discoveries at iconic sites such as the tombs of ancient Egypt's first rulers at Abydos, Akhenaten and Nefertiti’s city of Tell el-Amarna and rich Roman Era burials in the Fayum. Scattered Finds explores the politics, personalities and social histories that linked fieldwork in Egypt with the varied organizations around the world that received finds. Case studies range from Victorian municipal museums and women’s suffrage campaigns in the UK, to the development of some of the USA’s largest institutions, and from university museums in Japan to new institutions in post-independence Ghana. By juxtaposing a diversity of sites for the reception of Egyptian cultural heritage over the period of a century, Alice Stevenson presents new ideas about the development of archaeology, museums and the construction of Egyptian heritage. She also addresses the legacy of these practices, raises questions about the nature of the authority over such heritage today, and argues for a stronger ethical commitment to its stewardship.

96 citations

Dissertation
17 Dec 2013
TL;DR: This paper present a demarche litteraire comparatiste, axee sur dix romans rattaches, en theorie, au genre historique, and traitant tous de l’Antiquite.
Abstract: Ce projet de these, choisi en vue de l’obtention du doctorat des litteratures francaise, francophones et comparee, consiste en une demarche litteraire comparatiste, axee sur dix romans rattaches, en theorie, au genre historique, et traitant tous de l’Antiquite. Le corpus des œuvres, etabli sur une periode recouvrant les XIXe et XXe siecles, comprend quatre romans francais : Les Martyrs de Chateaubriand (1809), Le Roman de la momie de Theophile Gautier (1858), Salammbo de Gustave Flaubert (1862), Memoires d’Hadrien de Marguerite Yourcenar (1951) ; et six romans etrangers : The Last Days of Pompeii d’Edward G. Bulwer-Lytton (1834), Quo vadis ? de Henryk Sienkiewicz (1895), Siddhartha. Eine Indische Dichtung de Hermann Hesse (1922), Der Tod des Vergil de Hermann Broch (1945), Aztec de Gary Jennings (1980) et Creation de Gore Vidal (1981). Cet echantillonnage representatif du genre archeo-fictif tient compte principalement de la notoriete des romans historiques, de leur diversite geographique et culturelle, et de leur adherence au sujet de these. En effet, chaque roman s’apparente a une tentative remarquable de reconstitution « archeologico-litteraire » d’une civilisation antique aneantie par l’erosion du temps : l’Egypte ancienne, Carthage, Rome, Pompei, la Grece, la Perse, l’Inde, le Cathay (la Chine antique) et l’empire azteque. « Les destinees et les croyances religieuses » constituent le sujet unificateur qui relie ces romans a leur contexte litteraire. Le probleme generique du roman historique ; le substrat religieux dans l’anastylose archeofictive ; la transfiguration religieuse des lieux et du langage dessinent les principales orientations litteraires de la these.

75 citations