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Journal Article

Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria

01 Jul 2005-Mankind Quarterly (Council for Social and Economic Studies, Inc.)-Vol. 45, Iss: 4, pp 492
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the Black Male Development Initiative (BMDI) as a strategy for Black males on campus and discuss their personal experiences and memories of moments where they become aware of similarities and differences among people.
Abstract: Race and Racism w “Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?” featuring Dr. Beverly Tatum’s book. w “Recovering from Racism: Redefining What it Means to be White.” w “50th Anniversary of Brown vs. Board of Education.” w “The Mis-Education of the Negro” featuring Dr. Carter Woodson’s book. w “Moving Past the Margins: Creating successful strategies for Black males on campus,” presenting the Black Male Development Initiative (BMDI). w “He had a Dream... What is Yours?” Addressing Dr. King’s “I Have a Dream” speech and its current relevance in our society. w “Demystifying Malcolm X.” w “Racial Stereotyping and Responses to Terrorism.” w “Racial Stereotyping – Responding to Fear.” w “Free, White and (over) 21: Being White in a Multicultural World.” w “Constructing Race and Ethnicity in the 21st Century.” w “How did I Learn about Culture and Race?” Sharing your personal experiences and memories of moments where you become aware of similarities and differences among people. w “ABC: American-Born... and Confused?” w “The Invisible Asian: Where are the Asians in Diversity?” w “100 Years of Race Talk: Is It Enough?”
Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors conceptualized community cultural wealth as a critical race theory (CRT) challenge to traditional interpretations of cultural capital, shifting the research lens away from a deficit view of Communities of Color as places full of cultural poverty disadvantages, and instead focusing on and learns from the array of cultural knowledge, skills, abilities and contacts possessed by socially marginalized groups that often go unrecognized and unacknowledged.
Abstract: This article conceptualizes community cultural wealth as a critical race theory (CRT) challenge to traditional interpretations of cultural capital. CRT shifts the research lens away from a deficit view of Communities of Color as places full of cultural poverty disadvantages, and instead focuses on and learns from the array of cultural knowledge, skills, abilities and contacts possessed by socially marginalized groups that often go unrecognized and unacknowledged. Various forms of capital nurtured through cultural wealth include aspirational, navigational, social, linguistic, familial and resistant capital. These forms of capital draw on the knowledges Students of Color bring with them from their homes and communities into the classroom. This CRT approach to education involves a commitment to develop schools that acknowledge the multiple strengths of Communities of Color in order to serve a larger purpose of struggle toward social and racial justice.

4,897 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a longitudinal study of the growth patterns and correlates of perceived discrimination by adults and by peers among Black, Latino, and Asian American high school students was conducted. And the authors found that perceived discrimination was associated with decreased self-esteem and increased depressive symptoms over time.
Abstract: This article presents results from a 3-year longitudinal study of the growth patterns and correlates of perceived discrimination by adults and by peers among Black, Latino, and Asian American high school students. Results revealed a linear increase over time in levels of perceived discrimination by adults, whereas perceptions of discrimination by peers remained stable over time. Asian American and non-Puerto Rican Latino adolescents (primarily Dominican) reported higher levels of peer and/or adult discrimination than did Puerto Rican youth, whereas Black adolescents reported a steeper increase over time in levels of perceived discrimination by peers and by adults than did Puerto Rican adolescents. Peer and adult discrimination was significantly associated with decreased self-esteem and increased depressive symptoms over time. Ethnic identity and ethnicity were found to moderate the relationships between perceived discrimination and changes in psychological well-being over time. Results underscore the need to include perceptions of discrimination when studying the development and well-being of ethnic minority adolescents.

915 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined the interrelationships among racial discrimination, racial identity, and psychological functioning in a sample of 314 African American adolescents and found that racial discrimination was associated with lower levels of psychological functioning.
Abstract: This study examines the interrelationships among racial discrimination, racial identity, and psychological functioning in a sample of 314 African American adolescents. Racial discrimination was associated with lower levels of psychological functioning as measured by perceived stress, depressive symptomatology, and psychological well-being. Although individuals who believe that other groups hold more negative attitudes toward African Americans (low public regard) were at greater risk for experiencing racial discrimination, low public regard beliefs also buffered the impact of racial discrimination on psychological functioning. More positive attitudes about African Americans were also associated with more positive psychological functioning. The results further illustrate the utility of a multidimensional framework for understanding the role of racial identity in the relationship between racial discrimination and psychological outcomes among African American adolescents.

769 citations


Cites background from "Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting ..."

  • ...According to Tatum (1997), adolescents grapple with the questions of ‘‘Who am I?’’ and ‘‘Who can I be?’’...

    [...]

  • ...…significant because they illustrate the process that African American adolescents have to contend with to understand that their experiences may be different because of prejudice, discrimination, and structural barriers that frequently limit aspirations and hinder their achievement (Tatum, 1997)....

    [...]

  • ...This involves the integration of different dimensions of an adolescent’s life such as religious beliefs, racial/ethnic identities, and vocational plans (Phinney, 1992; Phinney & Rosenthal, 1992; Tatum, 1997)....

    [...]

  • ...Tatum (1997) asserts that this integration involves asking the questions ‘‘Who am I racially?’’ and ‘‘What does it mean to be African American?’’...

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, critical race theory has not spread significantly into the field of educational leadership, where the discourse on diversity has failed to penetrate the saliency of racism in schooling, and the purpose of this article is to confront the silence on race in schools and to summon scholars in the politics of education to critical analysis of race as an issue in public schools.
Abstract: Although Critical Race Theory (CRT) originated in the legal arena, its influence has proliferated throughout the social sciences literature. Yet CRT has not spread significantly into the field of educational leadership, where the discourse on diversity has failed to penetrate the salience of racism in schooling. The purpose of this article is to confront the silence on race in schools and to summon scholars in the politics of education to critical analysis of race as an issue in public schools.

529 citations


Cites background from "Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting ..."

  • ...In fact, most people would rather not discuss racism whatsoever because the topic itself is uncomfortable and unpleasant (Anzaldúa, 1990; Tatum, 1997; West, 1993a, 1993b)....

    [...]

  • ...…(Anzaldúa, 1990), because they feel that racism is a thing of the past (Bell, 1995b), because they do not see themselves as “raced” individuals (Fine et al., 1997; Frankenberg, 1993; Haney López, 1995a, 1995b), or because they feel that the race problem is not theirs to solve (Tatum, 1997)....

    [...]

  • ...Answers to these questions rest, in part, on the fact that racism and its effects are rarely discussed or acknowledged in society (Omi & Winant, 1986; Tatum, 1997; West, 1993a)....

    [...]

  • ...The belief that colorblindness will eliminate racism is not only shortsighted but reinforces the notion that racism is a personal—as opposed to systemic—issue (Matsuda, 1996; McCarthy & Crichlow, 1993; Scheurich & Young, 1997; Tatum, 1997; Valdes, Culp, & Harris, 2002; Williams, 1995b)....

    [...]

  • ...…that racism is an abnormal or unusual concept, critical race theorists begin with the premise that racism is a normal and endemic component of our social fabric (see also Banks, 1993; Collins, 1991; Gordon, 1990; LadsonBillings & Tate, 1995; Scheurich & Young, 1997; Tatum, 1997; Tyson, 1998)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For two decades, the acting white hypothesis has served as an explanation for black students' low school performance because of racialized peer pressure as mentioned in this paper, and it has been used as an alternative to the black-w...
Abstract: For two decades the acting white hypothesis—the premise that black students are driven toward low school performance because of racialized peer pressure—has served as an explanation for the black-w...

510 citations

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors conceptualized community cultural wealth as a critical race theory (CRT) challenge to traditional interpretations of cultural capital, shifting the research lens away from a deficit view of Communities of Color as places full of cultural poverty disadvantages, and instead focusing on and learns from the array of cultural knowledge, skills, abilities and contacts possessed by socially marginalized groups that often go unrecognized and unacknowledged.
Abstract: This article conceptualizes community cultural wealth as a critical race theory (CRT) challenge to traditional interpretations of cultural capital. CRT shifts the research lens away from a deficit view of Communities of Color as places full of cultural poverty disadvantages, and instead focuses on and learns from the array of cultural knowledge, skills, abilities and contacts possessed by socially marginalized groups that often go unrecognized and unacknowledged. Various forms of capital nurtured through cultural wealth include aspirational, navigational, social, linguistic, familial and resistant capital. These forms of capital draw on the knowledges Students of Color bring with them from their homes and communities into the classroom. This CRT approach to education involves a commitment to develop schools that acknowledge the multiple strengths of Communities of Color in order to serve a larger purpose of struggle toward social and racial justice.

4,897 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a longitudinal study of the growth patterns and correlates of perceived discrimination by adults and by peers among Black, Latino, and Asian American high school students was conducted. And the authors found that perceived discrimination was associated with decreased self-esteem and increased depressive symptoms over time.
Abstract: This article presents results from a 3-year longitudinal study of the growth patterns and correlates of perceived discrimination by adults and by peers among Black, Latino, and Asian American high school students. Results revealed a linear increase over time in levels of perceived discrimination by adults, whereas perceptions of discrimination by peers remained stable over time. Asian American and non-Puerto Rican Latino adolescents (primarily Dominican) reported higher levels of peer and/or adult discrimination than did Puerto Rican youth, whereas Black adolescents reported a steeper increase over time in levels of perceived discrimination by peers and by adults than did Puerto Rican adolescents. Peer and adult discrimination was significantly associated with decreased self-esteem and increased depressive symptoms over time. Ethnic identity and ethnicity were found to moderate the relationships between perceived discrimination and changes in psychological well-being over time. Results underscore the need to include perceptions of discrimination when studying the development and well-being of ethnic minority adolescents.

915 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined the interrelationships among racial discrimination, racial identity, and psychological functioning in a sample of 314 African American adolescents and found that racial discrimination was associated with lower levels of psychological functioning.
Abstract: This study examines the interrelationships among racial discrimination, racial identity, and psychological functioning in a sample of 314 African American adolescents. Racial discrimination was associated with lower levels of psychological functioning as measured by perceived stress, depressive symptomatology, and psychological well-being. Although individuals who believe that other groups hold more negative attitudes toward African Americans (low public regard) were at greater risk for experiencing racial discrimination, low public regard beliefs also buffered the impact of racial discrimination on psychological functioning. More positive attitudes about African Americans were also associated with more positive psychological functioning. The results further illustrate the utility of a multidimensional framework for understanding the role of racial identity in the relationship between racial discrimination and psychological outcomes among African American adolescents.

769 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, critical race theory has not spread significantly into the field of educational leadership, where the discourse on diversity has failed to penetrate the saliency of racism in schooling, and the purpose of this article is to confront the silence on race in schools and to summon scholars in the politics of education to critical analysis of race as an issue in public schools.
Abstract: Although Critical Race Theory (CRT) originated in the legal arena, its influence has proliferated throughout the social sciences literature. Yet CRT has not spread significantly into the field of educational leadership, where the discourse on diversity has failed to penetrate the salience of racism in schooling. The purpose of this article is to confront the silence on race in schools and to summon scholars in the politics of education to critical analysis of race as an issue in public schools.

529 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For two decades, the acting white hypothesis has served as an explanation for black students' low school performance because of racialized peer pressure as mentioned in this paper, and it has been used as an alternative to the black-w...
Abstract: For two decades the acting white hypothesis—the premise that black students are driven toward low school performance because of racialized peer pressure—has served as an explanation for the black-w...

510 citations