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Journal ArticleDOI

Why You Can/'t Believe the Arabian Historian Cide Hamete Benengeli: Islam and the Arabian Cultural Heritage in Don Quixote

01 Oct 2014-The Comparatist (The University of North Carolina Press)-Vol. 38, Iss: 1, pp 206-226
TL;DR: In this article, the authors re-visit Cervantes' views of Islam and Muslims and explore the not yet duly studied possible Arabic influence on Don Quixote, by comparing, for the first time in Cervantine scholarship, the Moorish tale (i.e., "The Captive's Tale") to the Frankish tale known alternatively as "Princess Miriam the Girdle-girl, daughter of the King of France" and "The Love Tale of Ali Nur al-Din the Cairene and Princess Mariam, Daughter of the
Abstract: In Don Quixote: A Touchstone for Literary Criticism (2005), distinguished Cervantine scholar James A. Parr does not seem to go too far when he hails Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra's El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha (1605-1615)--hereafter Don Quixote--as the perfect model of a "pivotal text" that is "prescient in its formulation of the strategies of the self-conscious, self-questioning, and other experimental and historical texts of our time" (6). Indeed, in addition to its superlative literary merit and fictional uniqueness, Don Quixote is historically and culturally rich. This is very much true, for example, of the text's distinctively complex dramatization of the early modern encounter between Europe and Islam. This encounter, of course historically speaking, was primarily embodied in the conflict between Habsburg Spain and the Ottoman Empire, then Europe's and the Islamic world's two leading powers. (2) Although the Spanish-Ottoman rivalry was performed in different territorial and, mainly, maritime battlegrounds--the Battle of Lepanto (1571) looms large in this regard--the textual ones were not less significant and Don Quixote is a compelling textual illustration. (3) In growing numbers, scholars are arguing that the "contact zone," between Europe and Islam is textually and contextually very detectable throughout the works of Cervantes. (4) "Islam," to quote Frederick Quinn's The Sum of All Heresies: The Image of Islam in Western Thought (2008), "was a topic not only in French and English political, religious, and cultural writings but also was the focus of a major seventeenth-century Spanish writer, Miguel de Cervantes" (83). While a fair amount of ink has been spilled on the Islamic theme, and that of Algiers in particular, in works such as Los Bagnos de Argel (The Bagnios of Algiers), Los Tratos de Alger (The Traffic of Algiers), El Galardo Espanol (The Gallant Spaniard) and La Gran Sultana (The Grand Sultana), there still exits a lacuna when it comes to exploring Cervantes' complex representation of Islam and his attitude towards the Arabo-Islamic cultural heritage in his magnum opus. Through addressing what I see as Cervantes' reference to the medieval propaganda myth of "the idol Mahomet," his literary transfiguration of the early modern subversive phenomenon of the conversion to Islam, and his ambiguous feelings towards the Arabian historian Cide Hamete Benengeli, I will re-visit Cervantes' views of Islam and Muslims. I will, further, explore--again, what I see as--the not yet duly studied possible Arabic influence on Don Quixote. I will do so by comparing, for the first time in Cervantine scholarship, the Moorish tale (i.e., "The Captive's Tale") to the Arabian Alf Layla wa- Layla's Frankish tale known alternatively as "Princess Miriam the Girdle-girl, Daughter of the King of France" and "The Love Tale of Ali Nur al-Din the Cairene and Princess Mariam, Daughter of the King of France." I will finally, albeit briefly, draw attention to the Arabic maqama genre whose features and motifs bear some striking similarities to some of the salient narratological and structural aspects of Don Quixote. The hope is to stir further interest and future research on the possible (in)direct influence of the Arabic maqama genre on Don Quixote. (5) It is "universally acknowledged" that Don Quixote is introduced at the beginning of the narrative as an obsessive reader of romances of chivalry and a zealous admirer of Christian knights. "In short," we are told, "our gentleman became so caught up in reading that he spent his nights from dusk till dawn and his days reading from sunrise to sunset" (21). In his seemingly never-ending disputes with his entourage, specifically the learned curate of the parish and the connoisseur Master Nicholas, barber of La Mancha, he prides himself on fervently defending the valor of his favorite knights Amadis de Gaula, El Cid Ruy Diaz, Bernardo del Carpio, (6) giant Morgante, and Reinaldos de Montalban. …
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, Nizar Hermes asks the compelling question "Can the Oriental gaze be distinguished from the male gaze?" when discussing the pertinent subject of "the male gaze" in the Middle East.
Abstract: Extrapolating from the feminist concept of the male “gaze,” Nizar Hermes asks the compelling question “Can the Oriental ‘gaze’?” (1), when discussing the pertinent—especially for today—subject of t...

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a method to solve the problem of the lack of resources in the field of health care in the Middle East by using the Internet of Things (IoT).
Abstract: إن من المعروف أن رواية دون كيشوت (كيخوته) تهكمت على الروايات ذات الطابع البطولي، وعملت على اجتثاثها. ومع ذلك، يبقى السؤال لماذا اختار ثرفانتس التركيز على عناصر الثقافة الموريسكية (مسلمي إسبانيا) إلى الحد الملحوظ في هذه الرواية، ويشير هذا البحث إلى أن ثرفانتس نظر إلى الهوية الموريسكية باعتبارها جزء أساسيا من الهوية الإسبانية الأوسع، واعتبر أن الاعتراف بهذا أمر ضروري لتجديد الثقافة الإسبانية. وبأسلوب أكثر تحديدا، يشرح كيف استخدم طقوس الترجمة الزائفة التي يسرها الأسلوب المجازي لمؤلف موريسكي خيالي ليبرز المعارضة الجدلية بينه وبين بطل الرواية، وفي نهاية المطاف بين المؤلف الخيالي والبطل. ومن خلال التحرر من التقاليد الأدبية والتسلسل الهرمي الاجتماعي بتقليل شأن النبيل الكاثوليكي ورفع سوية الموريسكي، يخلق ثرفانتس "مساحة محتملة" محدودة، إذ يسخر من الأفكار القديمة، وتختبر أفكار جديدة، ويسبر القراء نظرات ثاقبة جديدة حول الأدب والهوية: أي أنه على الرغم من أن جميع الأنواع جزء من التراث الأدبي، وجميع الهويات جزء من الإرث الثقافي، إلا أنها جميعها محصورة؛ وأن لا شيء يضمن تفوق الموقف أو دوام النموذج.

1 citations

References
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Book
01 Jan 1992
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the anti-conquest and the mystique of reciprocity in the contact zone of science and sentiment, 1750-1800, and the reinvention of America, 1800-50.
Abstract: 1st edition contents List of Illustrations Preface Introduction: Criticism in the contact zone Part I Science and sentiment, 1750-1800 Science, planetary consciousness, interiors Narrating the anti-conquest Anti-conquest II: The mystique of reciprocity Eros and Abolition Part II The reinvention of America, 1800-50 Alexander von Humboldt and the reinvention of America Reinventing America II: The capitalist vanguard and the exploratrices sociales Reinventing America/Reinventing Europe: Creole self-fashioning Part III Imperial Stylistics, 1860-1980 From the Victoria N'yanza to the Sheraton San Salvador Notes Index

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TL;DR: The English and the Mediterranean Encountering Islam Machiavellian Merchants Engendering Exchange The Mediterranean and the New World as discussed by the authors The Middle East and the Middle East: The Exotic Other
Abstract: Theorizing the Exotic Other The English and the Mediterranean Encountering Islam Machiavellian Merchants Engendering Exchange The Mediterranean and the New World

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TL;DR: Menocal as discussed by the authors argues that major modifications of the medieval canon and its literary history are necessary and examines the Arabic cultural presence in a variety of key settings, including the courts of William of Aquitaine and Frederick II, the universities in London, Paris, and Bologna, and Cluny under Peter the Venerable.
Abstract: Arabic culture was a central and shaping phenomenon in medieval Europe, yet its influence on medieval literature has been ignored or marginalized for the last two centuries. In this ground-breaking book, now returned to print with a new afterword by the author, Maria Rosa Menocal argues that major modifications of the medieval canon and its literary history are necessary. Menocal reviews the Arabic cultural presence in a variety of key settings, including the courts of William of Aquitaine and Frederick II, the universities in London, Paris, and Bologna, and Cluny under Peter the Venerable, and she examines how our perception of specific texts including the courtly love lyric and the works of Dante and Boccaccio would be altered by an acknowledgment of the Arabic cultural component.

133 citations

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01 Jan 1977
TL;DR: Ackerman as mentioned in this paper examines the literary and intellectual relationships between "Piers Plowman" and "The Faerie Queene" and links these two rich and problematical poems by showing their development from a common religious and artistic matrix and by assessing their roles in the evolution of allegory.
Abstract: This book examines the literary and intellectual relationships between "Piers Plowman" and "The Faerie Queene". It links these two rich and problematical poems by showing their development from a common religious and artistic matrix and by assessing their roles in the evolution of allegory. "A valuable contibution to our understanding of the medieval vernacular literature." --Robert W. Ackerman

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Reference BookDOI
12 Jan 2018
TL;DR: The Medieval Islamic Civilization as mentioned in this paper examines the socio-cultural history of the regions where Islam took hold between the 7th and 16th centuries and explores the importance of interfaith relations and the permeation of persons, ideas, and objects across geographical and intellectual boundaries between Europe and the Islamic world.
Abstract: Islamic civilization flourished in the Middle Ages across a vast geographical area that spans today's Middle and Near East First published in 2006, Medieval Islamic Civilization examines the socio-cultural history of the regions where Islam took hold between the 7th and 16th centuries This important two-volume work contains over 700 alphabetically arranged entries, contributed and signed by international scholars and experts in fields such as Arabic languages, Arabic literature, architecture, history of science, Islamic arts, Islamic studies, Middle Eastern studies, Near Eastern studies, politics, religion, Semitic studies, theology, and more Entries also explore the importance of interfaith relations and the permeation of persons, ideas, and objects across geographical and intellectual boundaries between Europe and the Islamic worldThis reference work provides an exhaustive and vivid portrait of Islamic civilization and brings together in one authoritative text all aspects of Islamic civilization during the Middle Ages Accessible to scholars, students and non-specialists, this resource will be of great use in research and understanding of the roots of today's Islamic society as well as the rich and vivid culture of medieval Islamic civilization

80 citations