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Journal ArticleDOI

Wideband Fabry-Perot Resonator Antenna With Two Complementary FSS Layers

TL;DR: In this article, a Fabry-Perot (FP) resonator antenna with a wide gain bandwidth in the X band was proposed, which is attributed to the positive reflection phase gradient of an electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structure, constructed by the combination of two complementary frequency selective surfaces (FSSs).
Abstract: This paper presents a novel design of a Fabry-Perot (FP) resonator antenna with a wide gain bandwidth in X band. The bandwidth enhancement of the antenna is attributed to the positive reflection phase gradient of an electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structure, which is constructed by the combination of two complementary frequency selective surfaces (FSSs). To explain well the design procedure and approach, the EBG structure is modeled as an equivalent circuit and analyzed using the Smith Chart. Experimental results show that the antenna possesses a relative 3 dB gain bandwidth of 28%, from 8.6 GHz to 11.4 GHz, with a peak gain of 13.8 dBi. Moreover, the gain bandwidth can be well covered by the impedance bandwidth for the reflection coefficient ( ${\rm S} _{11}$ ) below $-10~{\rm dB}$ from 8.6 GHz to 11.2 GHz.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a chessboard arranged metamaterial superstrate (CAMS) is used to enhance the antenna gain and reduce the radar cross-section (RCS) of a Fabry-Perot (FP) resonator antenna.
Abstract: The simultaneous improvement in radiation and scattering performance of an antenna is normally considered as contradictory. In this paper, wideband gain enhancement and radar cross section (RCS) reduction of Fabry–Perot (FP) resonator antenna are both achieved by using chessboard arranged metamaterial superstrate (CAMS). The CAMS is formed by two kinds of frequency-selective surfaces. The upper surface of CAMS is designed to reduce RCS based on the phase cancellation principle, and the bottom surface is used to enhance antenna gain on the basis of FP resonator cavity theory. Both simulation and measured results indicate that compared with primary antenna, the gain of the proposed FP resonator antenna is enhanced by 4.9 dB at 10.8 GHz and the 3 dB gain bandwidth is from 9.4 to 11.1 GHz (16.58%). Meanwhile, the RCS of the proposed FP resonator antenna is reduced from 8 to 18 GHz, with peak reduction of 39.4 dB. The 10 dB RCS reduction is obtained almost from 9.6 to 16.9 GHz (55.09%) for arbitrary polarizations. Moreover, the in-band RCS is greatly reduced, owing to the combined effect of CAMS and FP resonator cavity.

137 citations


Cites background from "Wideband Fabry-Perot Resonator Ante..."

  • ...unique structure [13], [18], which can be explained by the ray...

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  • ...These phase features are helpful in broadening gain enhancement [13] and RCS reduction bandwidth [27]....

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  • ...The operation frequency depends on the following equation [13], [19]: f = c 4πh (φ − φGND + 2Nπ), N = 0, 1, 2 · · · (8)...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A critical review of metasurfaces, which are planar metamaterials, can be found in this paper, where the authors discuss salient features and applications of metamurfaces; wavefront shaping; phase jumps; non-linear metasuranfaces; and their use as frequency selective surfaces (FSS).
Abstract: This paper is a critical review of metasurfaces, which are planar metamaterials. Metamaterials offer bespoke electromagnetic applications and novel properties which are not found in naturally occurring materials. However, owing to their 3D-nature and resonant characteristics, they suffer from manufacturing complexity, losses and are highly dispersive. The 2-dimensional nature of metasurfaces allows ease of fabrication and integration into devices. The phase discontinuity across the metasurface offers anomalous refraction, thereby conserving the good metamaterial properties while still offering the low-loss characteristics. The paper discusses salient features and applications of metasurfaces; wavefront shaping; phase jumps; non-linear metasurfaces; and their use as frequency selective surfaces (FSS).

136 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a single-slab superstrate that has a permittivity gradient in the directions transverse to the antenna axis was proposed for a single feed RCA with a measured 3-dB directivity bandwidth of 52.9% and 16.4-dBi.
Abstract: Extremely wideband resonant cavity antennas (RCAs) with large directivity-bandwidth products (DBPs) are presented. Their distinct feature is a single-slab superstrate that has a permittivity gradient in the directions transverse to the antenna axis. The application of such a superstrate in a single-feed RCA improves the DBP by a factor of three or more as compared with superstrates composed of uniform dielectric slabs. Their very small area enables an antenna designer to achieve unprecedented figures of DBP per unit area, from a simple planar antenna. Prototype RCAs have been fabricated and measurements have validated the concept. A measured 3-dB directivity bandwidth of 52.9% was demonstrated with a measured directivity of 16.4 dBi for an RCA that has a very small total footprint area of 1.54 $\lambda_0^2$ at the lowest operating frequency (2.84 $\lambda_{0,c}^2$ at the center frequency). This represents an increase of 90% over the previous best measured RCA directivity bandwidth of 28%.

100 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a shared-surface dual-band antenna using characteristic mode analysis (CMA) is proposed for 5G operation using a metasurface at the S$ -band and a partially reflective surface (PRS) at the Ka-band.
Abstract: A shared-surface dual-band antenna is proposed for 5G operation using characteristic mode analysis (CMA). The surface is the integration of a metasurface at the ${S}$ -band and a partially reflective surface (PRS) at the Ka -band. The resonant mode of the metasurface is excited by a microstrip-fed slot, and the PRS with a pair of substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW)-fed slots are employed to form a Fabry–Perot resonator antenna (FPRA). Measurements realized on a physical prototype of the antenna show a 10 dB impedance bandwidth of 23.45% and 9.76% and a realized gain that varies from 7.27 to 10.44 dBi and from 11.8 to 14.6 dBi, over the ${S}$ -band (3.2–4.05 GHz) and the Ka -band (26.8–29.55 GHz), respectively.

96 citations


Cites background from "Wideband Fabry-Perot Resonator Ante..."

  • ...which shows the desired positive reflection phase gradient versus frequency and the radiation bandwidth can be broadened based on the PRS with this feature [34], [36]–[38]....

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  • ...The complementary PRS unit cell is modified from [34]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a dual-layer partially reflective surface (PRS) was placed above a slot antenna operating at 60 GHz and fed by a printed ridge-gap waveguide for surface-wave suppression.
Abstract: A novel wideband and high-gain millimeter-wave antenna is presented. The wide 3 dB gain bandwidth is achieved by using Fabry–Perot cavity (FPC) and printed ridge-gap waveguide technologies. The FPC is formed by placing a dual-layer partially reflective surface (PRS) above a slot antenna operating at 60 GHz and fed by a printed ridge-gap waveguide for surface-wave suppression. The PRS is based on a 2-D printed unit cell, the unit cell composed of two different frequency-selective surfaces (FSS) provides a positive phase gradient over the desired frequency range. The impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 18.4%, from 55.4 to 66.6 GHz. Moreover, the 3 dB gain bandwidth is 12.5%, from 58.6 to 66.4 GHz. A maximum gain of 16.8 dB is achieved; this is about 12.2 dB over the gain of the slot antenna only. Consistent radiation patterns are achieved over the operating bandwidth. Experimental and numerical results are presented to justify the improved antenna performance. This communication, to the best of our knowledge, is the first one to utilize a dual-layer printed FSS-based superstrate at 60 GHz to enhance the radiation characteristics of a printed ridge-gap waveguide-fed slot antenna.

95 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2001
TL;DR: In this paper, a high gain planar antenna with an optimized partially reflecting surface (PRS) placed in front of a waveguide aperture in a ground plane was investigated, where the antenna performance was initially related to the reflection characteristics of the PRS array following an approximate analysis.
Abstract: A high gain planar antenna has been investigated, using an optimised partially reflecting surface (PRS) placed in front of a waveguide aperture in a ground plane. The antenna performance is initially related to the reflection characteristics of the PRS array following an approximate analysis. The array geometry is optimised using an analytical formula. The optimisation results are verified using a full wave model taking into account the edge effects. The array size for maximum antenna efficiency has also been investigated.

611 citations


"Wideband Fabry-Perot Resonator Ante..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...The third method was based on the analysis in [17]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, two different defects, one introduced by the ground plane of the antenna and the other produced by a row of defect rods with different dielectric constants in the EBG structure, are simultaneously used as key controllers of directivity enhancement.
Abstract: We present some applications of an electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) superstrate as a spatial angular filter for filtering undesired radiation by sharpening the radiation pattern. Two different defects, one introduced by the ground plane of the antenna and the other produced by a row of defect rods with different dielectric constants in the EBG structure, are simultaneously used as key controllers of directivity enhancement. Initially, we study the unit cell of the EBG structures by varying several parameters, in order to understand how they influence the locations of the bandgap and defect frequencies. Next, the defect frequencies of the unit cell of the EBG cover, and those with high directivity for the EBG antenna composite, are compared to validate the proposed design scheme. Finally, we introduce some interesting applications of EBG superstrates for various types of patch antennas as spatial angular filters, such as a dual-band orthogonally-polarized antenna, a wide-band directive antenna, and an array antenna with grating lobes.

260 citations


"Wideband Fabry-Perot Resonator Ante..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Various EBG structures used as PRSs to construct FP resonator antennas have been studied, including 1-D dielectric slabs [9], 2-D dielectric grids and rods [10], 2-D printed frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) [11], 2-D metallic apertures in a conducting plate [12], and 3-D woodpile structures [6]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Partially reflecting surfaces with positive reflection phase gradients are investigated for the design of wideband, low profile electromagnetic band gap (EBG) resonator antennas in this article, where three such surfaces, each with printed dipoles on both sides, have been designed to obtain different positive reflection phases and reflection magnitude levels in the operating frequency bands.
Abstract: Partially reflecting surfaces (PRS) with positive reflection phase gradients are investigated for the design of wideband, low-profile electromagnetic band gap (EBG) resonator antennas. Thin single-dielectric-slab PRSs with printed patterns on both sides are proposed to minimize the PRS thickness and to simplify fabrication. Three such surfaces, each with printed dipoles on both sides, have been designed to obtain different positive reflection phase gradients and reflection magnitude levels in the operating frequency bands. These surfaces, and the EBG resonator antennas formed from them, are analyzed theoretically and experimentally to highlight the design compromises involved and to reveal the relationships between the antenna peak gain, gain bandwidth, the reflection profile (i.e., positive phase gradient and magnitude) of the surface and the relative dimensions of dipoles. A small feed antenna, designed to operate in the cavity field environment, provides good impedance matching (|S11| <; -10 dB) across the operating frequency bands of all three EBG resonator antennas. Experimental results confirm the wideband performance of a simple, low-profile EBG resonator antenna. Its PRS thickness is only 1.6 mm, effective bandwidth is 12.6%, measured peak gain is 16.2 dBi at 11.5 GHz and 3 dB gain bandwidth is 15.7%.

220 citations


"Wideband Fabry-Perot Resonator Ante..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...PRSs with this characteristic were successfully constructed by 2-D printed metal strips [18] and 1-D dielectric substrates [19], respectively, and used in several antenna designs....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a high-efficient and high-gain aperture coupled patch antenna with superstrate at 60 GHz was studied and presented, and it was shown that adding superstrate will result in a significant effect on the antenna performances, and the size of the superstrate is critical for the optimum performance.
Abstract: A high-efficient and high-gain aperture coupled patch antenna with superstrate at 60 GHz is studied and presented. It is noted that adding superstrate will result in a significant effect on the antenna performances, and the size of the superstrate is critical for the optimum performance. The maximum measured gain of a single antenna with superstrate is 14.6 dBi, which is higher than that of a classical 2 x 2 array. It is found that the gain measured of a single antenna with superstrate increases nearly 9 dB at 60 GHz over its basic patch antenna. This superstrate antenna gives a very high estimated efficiency of 76%. The 2:1 measured VSWR bandwidth with superstrate is 6.8%. The radiation patterns are found to be broadside all over the frequency band. Also, this letter explains a comparison to another source of parasitic patch superstrate antenna with normal microstrip coupling. It is found that aperture coupling is better for high-gain antenna applications.

155 citations


"Wideband Fabry-Perot Resonator Ante..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Although an FP resonator antenna has several merits such as high directivity and high radiation efficiency [13], its inherently narrow gain bandwidth severely inhibits its use for many applications....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a 1-dimensional (1-D) electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) resonator antenna with both high gain and wide radiation bandwidth is described, where the effect of the dual resonators is to increase the bandwidth over which the EBG material acts as a spatial filter.
Abstract: A one-dimensional (1-D) electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) resonator antenna with both high gain and wide radiation bandwidth is described. The use of dual resonators in combination with an array of sources leads to a dramatic increase in the radiation bandwidth of the antenna. The effect of the dual resonators is to increase the bandwidth over which the EBG material acts as a spatial filter, while the array feed increases both the directivity and radiation bandwidth. Theoretical results for a prototype designed to operate at Ku-band are presented and shown to be in good agreement with measured results. The effect of increasing the number of array elements on directivity and radiation bandwidth is examined, and the improvements of the proposed configuration compared with a classical 1-D EBG resonator antenna with single source is presented.

129 citations


"Wideband Fabry-Perot Resonator Ante..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...The first one employed an antenna array instead of a single antenna as the excitation to feed an FP resonator antenna [15], where an enhanced 3 dB gain bandwidth of 13....

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