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Journal ArticleDOI

Wireless Networks With RF Energy Harvesting: A Contemporary Survey

22 Jan 2015-IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials (IEEE)-Vol. 17, Iss: 2, pp 757-789

TL;DR: This paper presents an overview of the RF-EHNs including system architecture, RF energy harvesting techniques, and existing applications, and explores various key design issues according to the network types, i.e., single-hop networks, multiantenna networks, relay networks, and cognitive radio networks.
Abstract: Radio frequency (RF) energy transfer and harvesting techniques have recently become alternative methods to power the next-generation wireless networks As this emerging technology enables proactive energy replenishment of wireless devices, it is advantageous in supporting applications with quality-of-service requirements In this paper, we present a comprehensive literature review on the research progresses in wireless networks with RF energy harvesting capability, which is referred to as RF energy harvesting networks (RF-EHNs) First, we present an overview of the RF-EHNs including system architecture, RF energy harvesting techniques, and existing applications Then, we present the background in circuit design as well as the state-of-the-art circuitry implementations and review the communication protocols specially designed for RF-EHNs We also explore various key design issues in the development of RF-EHNs according to the network types, ie, single-hop networks, multiantenna networks, relay networks, and cognitive radio networks Finally, we envision some open research directions
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Numerical results unveil a substantial performance gain that can be achieved if the resource allocation design is based on the proposed non-linear energy harvesting model instead of the traditional linear model.
Abstract: In this letter, we propose a practical non-linear energy harvesting model and design a resource allocation algorithm for simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) systems. The algorithm design is formulated as a non-convex optimization problem for the maximization of the total harvested power at energy harvesting receivers subject to minimum required signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratios (SINRs) at multiple information receivers. We transform the considered non-convex objective function from sum-of-ratios form into an equivalent objective function in subtractive form, which enables the derivation of an efficient iterative resource allocation algorithm. In each iteration, a rank-constrained semidefinite program (SDP) is solved optimally by SDP relaxation. Numerical results unveil a substantial performance gain that can be achieved if the resource allocation design is based on the proposed non-linear energy harvesting model instead of the traditional linear model.

643 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper provides a survey-style introduction to dense small cell networks and considers many research directions, namely, user association, interference management, energy efficiency, spectrum sharing, resource management, scheduling, backhauling, propagation modeling, and the economics of UDN deployment.
Abstract: The exponential growth and availability of data in all forms is the main booster to the continuing evolution in the communications industry. The popularization of traffic-intensive applications including high definition video, 3-D visualization, augmented reality, wearable devices, and cloud computing defines a new era of mobile communications. The immense amount of traffic generated by today’s customers requires a paradigm shift in all aspects of mobile networks. Ultradense network (UDN) is one of the leading ideas in this racetrack. In UDNs, the access nodes and/or the number of communication links per unit area are densified. In this paper, we provide a survey-style introduction to dense small cell networks. Moreover, we summarize and compare some of the recent achievements and research findings. We discuss the modeling techniques and the performance metrics widely used to model problems in UDN. Also, we present the enabling technologies for network densification in order to understand the state-of-the-art. We consider many research directions in this survey, namely, user association, interference management, energy efficiency, spectrum sharing, resource management, scheduling, backhauling, propagation modeling, and the economics of UDN deployment. Finally, we discuss the challenges and open problems to the researchers in the field or newcomers who aim to conduct research in this interesting and active area of research.

633 citations


Cites background from "Wireless Networks With RF Energy Ha..."

  • ...ent scopes, specifically Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets), massive multiple-input multiple-output (massive-MIMO) networks, millimeter waves (mmWaves) networks, and energy harvesting networks [9]....

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Book ChapterDOI
I. M. Stancu-Minasian1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1997-
Abstract: In this chapter we deal with the following nonlinear fractional programming problem: $$P:\mathop{{\max }}\limits_{{x \in s}} q(x) = (f(x) + \alpha )/((x) + \beta )$$ where f, g: R n → R, α, β ∈ R, S ⊆ R n . To simplify things, and without restricting the generality of the problem, it is usually assumed that, g(x) + β + 0 for all x ∈ S,S is non-empty and that the objective function has a finite optimal value.

632 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Xiao Lu1, Ping Wang2, Dusit Niyato2, Dong In Kim3  +1 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Wireless charging is a technology of transmitting power through an air gap to electrical devices for the purpose of energy replenishment. The recent progress in wireless charging techniques and development of commercial products have provided a promising alternative way to address the energy bottleneck of conventionally portable battery-powered devices. However, the incorporation of wireless charging into the existing wireless communication systems also brings along a series of challenging issues with regard to implementation, scheduling, and power management. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of wireless charging techniques, the developments in technical standards, and their recent advances in network applications. In particular, with regard to network applications, we review the static charger scheduling strategies, mobile charger dispatch strategies and wireless charger deployment strategies. Additionally, we discuss open issues and challenges in implementing wireless charging technologies. Finally, we envision some practical future network applications of wireless charging.

610 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Stefano Buzzi1, Chih-Lin I2, Thierry Klein3, H. Vincent Poor4  +2 moreInstitutions (6)
TL;DR: This survey provides an overview of energy-efficient wireless communications, reviews seminal and recent contribution to the state-of-the-art, including the papers published in this special issue, and discusses the most relevant research challenges to be addressed in the future.
Abstract: After about a decade of intense research, spurred by both economic and operational considerations, and by environmental concerns, energy efficiency has now become a key pillar in the design of communication networks. With the advent of the fifth generation of wireless networks, with millions more base stations and billions of connected devices, the need for energy-efficient system design and operation will be even more compelling. This survey provides an overview of energy-efficient wireless communications, reviews seminal and recent contribution to the state-of-the-art, including the papers published in this special issue, and discusses the most relevant research challenges to be addressed in the future.

532 citations


Cites background from "Wireless Networks With RF Energy Ha..."

  • ...The paper [145], as an instance, presents an analysis of the spectral efficiency of single-carrier and OFDM transmission in massive MIMO systems that use one-bit analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), while a capacity analysis of one-bit quantized MIMO systems with transmitter CSI is reported in…...

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References
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Book
15 Jan 1996-
Abstract: From the Publisher: The indispensable guide to wireless communications—now fully revised and updated! Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice, Second Edition is the definitive modern text for wireless communications technology and system design. Building on his classic first edition, Theodore S. Rappaport covers the fundamental issues impacting all wireless networks and reviews virtually every important new wireless standard and technological development, offering especially comprehensive coverage of the 3G systems and wireless local area networks (WLANs) that will transform communications in the coming years. Rappaport illustrates each key concept with practical examples, thoroughly explained and solved step by step. Coverage includes: An overview of key wireless technologies: voice, data, cordless, paging, fixed and mobile broadband wireless systems, and beyond Wireless system design fundamentals: channel assignment, handoffs, trunking efficiency, interference, frequency reuse, capacity planning, large-scale fading, and more Path loss, small-scale fading, multipath, reflection, diffraction, scattering, shadowing, spatial-temporal channel modeling, and microcell/indoor propagation Modulation, equalization, diversity, channel coding, and speech coding New wireless LAN technologies: IEEE 802.11a/b, HIPERLAN, BRAN, and other alternatives New 3G air interface standards, including W-CDMA, cdma2000, GPRS, UMTS, and EDGE Bluetooth wearable computers, fixed wireless and Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS), and other advanced technologies Updated glossary of abbreviations and acronyms, and a thorolist of references Dozens of new examples and end-of-chapter problems Whether you're a communications/network professional, manager, researcher, or student, Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice, Second Edition gives you an in-depth understanding of the state of the art in wireless technology—today's and tomorrow's.

16,896 citations


"Wireless Networks With RF Energy Ha..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...A practical and widely adopted probabilistic model is a Rayleigh model [26], which represents the situation when there is no line-of-sight channel between a transmitter and receiver....

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Book
01 Jan 1982-
Abstract: The most-up-to-date resource available on antenna theory and design Expanded coverage of design procedures and equations makes meeting ABET design requirements easy and prepares readers for authentic situations in industry New coverage of microstrip antennas exposes readers to information vital to a wide variety of practical applicationsComputer programs at end of each chapter and the accompanying disk assist in problem solving, design projects and data plotting-- Includes updated material on moment methods, radar cross section, mutual impedances, aperture and horn antennas, and antenna measurements-- Outstanding 3-dimensional illustrations help readers visualize the entire antenna radiation pattern

14,060 citations


"Wireless Networks With RF Energy Ha..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...avelength of the RF signals and the distance between an RF energy source and the harvesting node. The harvested RF power from a transmitter in free space can be calculated based on the Friis equation [24] as follows: P R =P T G TG Rλ2 (4πd)2L (1) where P R is the received power, P T is the transmit power, L is the path loss factor, G T is the transmit antenna gain, G R is the receive antenna gain, λ i...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work reveals that it is in general not optimal to regard the information to be multicast as a "fluid" which can simply be routed or replicated, and by employing coding at the nodes, which the work refers to as network coding, bandwidth can in general be saved.
Abstract: We introduce a new class of problems called network information flow which is inspired by computer network applications. Consider a point-to-point communication network on which a number of information sources are to be multicast to certain sets of destinations. We assume that the information sources are mutually independent. The problem is to characterize the admissible coding rate region. This model subsumes all previously studied models along the same line. We study the problem with one information source, and we have obtained a simple characterization of the admissible coding rate region. Our result can be regarded as the max-flow min-cut theorem for network information flow. Contrary to one's intuition, our work reveals that it is in general not optimal to regard the information to be multicast as a "fluid" which can simply be routed or replicated. Rather, by employing coding at the nodes, which we refer to as network coding, bandwidth can in general be saved. This finding may have significant impact on future design of switching systems.

8,297 citations


"Wireless Networks With RF Energy Ha..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Network coding [231] is well-known to be energy efficient in information transmission....

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Journal ArticleDOI
06 Jul 2007-Science
TL;DR: A quantitative model is presented describing the power transfer of self-resonant coils in a strongly coupled regime, which matches the experimental results to within 5%.
Abstract: Using self-resonant coils in a strongly coupled regime, we experimentally demonstrated efficient nonradiative power transfer over distances up to 8 times the radius of the coils We were able to transfer 60 watts with ∼40% efficiency over distances in excess of 2 meters We present a quantitative model describing the power transfer, which matches the experimental results to within 5% We discuss the practical applicability of this system and suggest directions for further study

4,673 citations


"Wireless Networks With RF Energy Ha..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Magnetic resonance coupling [7] utilizes evanescent-wave coupling to generate and transfer electrical energy between two resonators....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: While the proposed algorithms are suboptimal, they lead to simpler transmitter and receiver structures and allow for a reasonable tradeoff between performance and complexity.
Abstract: The use of space-division multiple access (SDMA) in the downlink of a multiuser multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communications network can provide a substantial gain in system throughput. The challenge in such multiuser systems is designing transmit vectors while considering the co-channel interference of other users. Typical optimization problems of interest include the capacity problem - maximizing the sum information rate subject to a power constraint-or the power control problem-minimizing transmitted power such that a certain quality-of-service metric for each user is met. Neither of these problems possess closed-form solutions for the general multiuser MIMO channel, but the imposition of certain constraints can lead to closed-form solutions. This paper presents two such constrained solutions. The first, referred to as "block-diagonalization," is a generalization of channel inversion when there are multiple antennas at each receiver. It is easily adapted to optimize for either maximum transmission rate or minimum power and approaches the optimal solution at high SNR. The second, known as "successive optimization," is an alternative method for solving the power minimization problem one user at a time, and it yields superior results in some (e.g., low SNR) situations. Both of these algorithms are limited to cases where the transmitter has more antennas than all receive antennas combined. In order to accommodate more general scenarios, we also propose a framework for coordinated transmitter-receiver processing that generalizes the two algorithms to cases involving more receive than transmit antennas. While the proposed algorithms are suboptimal, they lead to simpler transmitter and receiver structures and allow for a reasonable tradeoff between performance and complexity.

3,117 citations


"Wireless Networks With RF Energy Ha..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...To mitigate th interference, the authors propose to use block diagonaliza tion preceding method which can support a limited number of information receivers due to zero-forcing channel inversi on [150]....

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Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20222
2021239
2020283
2019370
2018382
2017354