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Journal ArticleDOI

Wireless sensor networks: a survey

15 Mar 2002-Computer Networks (Elsevier North-Holland, Inc.)-Vol. 38, Iss: 4, pp 393-422

TL;DR: The concept of sensor networks which has been made viable by the convergence of micro-electro-mechanical systems technology, wireless communications and digital electronics is described.
Abstract: This paper describes the concept of sensor networks which has been made viable by the convergence of micro-electro-mechanical systems technology, wireless communications and digital electronics. First, the sensing tasks and the potential sensor networks applications are explored, and a review of factors influencing the design of sensor networks is provided. Then, the communication architecture for sensor networks is outlined, and the algorithms and protocols developed for each layer in the literature are explored. Open research issues for the realization of sensor networks are also discussed.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 2010-Computer Networks
TL;DR: This survey is directed to those who want to approach this complex discipline and contribute to its development, and finds that still major issues shall be faced by the research community.
Abstract: This paper addresses the Internet of Things. Main enabling factor of this promising paradigm is the integration of several technologies and communications solutions. Identification and tracking technologies, wired and wireless sensor and actuator networks, enhanced communication protocols (shared with the Next Generation Internet), and distributed intelligence for smart objects are just the most relevant. As one can easily imagine, any serious contribution to the advance of the Internet of Things must necessarily be the result of synergetic activities conducted in different fields of knowledge, such as telecommunications, informatics, electronics and social science. In such a complex scenario, this survey is directed to those who want to approach this complex discipline and contribute to its development. Different visions of this Internet of Things paradigm are reported and enabling technologies reviewed. What emerges is that still major issues shall be faced by the research community. The most relevant among them are addressed in details.

11,254 citations


Cites background from "Wireless sensor networks: a survey"

  • ...A large scientific literature has been produced on sensor networks in the recent past, addressing several problems at all layers of the protocol stack [22]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Ubiquitous sensing enabled by Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technologies cuts across many areas of modern day living. This offers the ability to measure, infer and understand environmental indicators, from delicate ecologies and natural resources to urban environments. The proliferation of these devices in a communicating-actuating network creates the Internet of Things (IoT), wherein sensors and actuators blend seamlessly with the environment around us, and the information is shared across platforms in order to develop a common operating picture (COP). Fueled by the recent adaptation of a variety of enabling wireless technologies such as RFID tags and embedded sensor and actuator nodes, the IoT has stepped out of its infancy and is the next revolutionary technology in transforming the Internet into a fully integrated Future Internet. As we move from www (static pages web) to web2 (social networking web) to web3 (ubiquitous computing web), the need for data-on-demand using sophisticated intuitive queries increases significantly. This paper presents a Cloud centric vision for worldwide implementation of Internet of Things. The key enabling technologies and application domains that are likely to drive IoT research in the near future are discussed. A Cloud implementation using Aneka, which is based on interaction of private and public Clouds is presented. We conclude our IoT vision by expanding on the need for convergence of WSN, the Internet and distributed computing directed at technological research community.

8,564 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
15 Mar 2005-Computer Networks
TL;DR: This paper presents a detailed study on recent advances and open research issues in WMNs, followed by discussing the critical factors influencing protocol design and exploring the state-of-the-art protocols for WMNs.
Abstract: Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) consist of mesh routers and mesh clients, where mesh routers have minimal mobility and form the backbone of WMNs. They provide network access for both mesh and conventional clients. The integration of WMNs with other networks such as the Internet, cellular, IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.15, IEEE 802.16, sensor networks, etc., can be accomplished through the gateway and bridging functions in the mesh routers. Mesh clients can be either stationary or mobile, and can form a client mesh network among themselves and with mesh routers. WMNs are anticipated to resolve the limitations and to significantly improve the performance of ad hoc networks, wireless local area networks (WLANs), wireless personal area networks (WPANs), and wireless metropolitan area networks (WMANs). They are undergoing rapid progress and inspiring numerous deployments. WMNs will deliver wireless services for a large variety of applications in personal, local, campus, and metropolitan areas. Despite recent advances in wireless mesh networking, many research challenges remain in all protocol layers. This paper presents a detailed study on recent advances and open research issues in WMNs. System architectures and applications of WMNs are described, followed by discussing the critical factors influencing protocol design. Theoretical network capacity and the state-of-the-art protocols for WMNs are explored with an objective to point out a number of open research issues. Finally, testbeds, industrial practice, and current standard activities related to WMNs are highlighted.

4,121 citations


Cites background from "Wireless sensor networks: a survey"

  • ...This type of WMNs includes mesh routers forming an infrastructure for clients that connect to them....

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  • ...Thus, protocols proposed for mobile ad hoc networks [34] and wireless sensor networks [8,9] are too cumbersome to achieve satisfactory performance in this application....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Hui Liu1, Houshang Darabi1, Pat Banerjee1, Jing Liu2Institutions (2)
01 Nov 2007-
TL;DR: Comprehensive performance comparisons including accuracy, precision, complexity, scalability, robustness, and cost are presented.
Abstract: Wireless indoor positioning systems have become very popular in recent years. These systems have been successfully used in many applications such as asset tracking and inventory management. This paper provides an overview of the existing wireless indoor positioning solutions and attempts to classify different techniques and systems. Three typical location estimation schemes of triangulation, scene analysis, and proximity are analyzed. We also discuss location fingerprinting in detail since it is used in most current system or solutions. We then examine a set of properties by which location systems are evaluated, and apply this evaluation method to survey a number of existing systems. Comprehensive performance comparisons including accuracy, precision, complexity, scalability, robustness, and cost are presented.

3,865 citations


Cites background from "Wireless sensor networks: a survey"

  • ...Dramatic advances in RF and microelectromechanical (MEMS) IC design have made possible the use of large networks of wireless sensors for a variety of new monitoring and control applications [ 63 ], [64]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Kemal Akkaya1, Mohamed Younis1Institutions (1)
01 May 2005-
TL;DR: The three main categories explored in this paper are data-centric, hierarchical and location-based; each routing protocol is described and discussed under the appropriate category.
Abstract: Recent advances in wireless sensor networks have led to many new protocols specifically designed for sensor networks where energy awareness is an essential consideration. Most of the attention, however, has been given to the routing protocols since they might differ depending on the application and network architecture. This paper surveys recent routing protocols for sensor networks and presents a classification for the various approaches pursued. The three main categories explored in this paper are data-centric, hierarchical and location-based. Each routing protocol is described and discussed under the appropriate category. Moreover, protocols using contemporary methodologies such as network flow and quality of service modeling are also discussed. The paper concludes with open research issues. � 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

3,501 citations


Cites background from "Wireless sensor networks: a survey"

  • ...Recent advances in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and low power and highly integrated digital electronics have led to the development of micro sensors [1][2][3][4][5]....

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  • ...The growing interest in wireless sensor networks and the continual emergence of new architectural techniques inspired some previous efforts for surveying the characteristics, applications and communication protocols for such a technical area [1][13]....

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  • ...23 SAR: Sequential Assignment Routing (SAR) is the first protocol for sensor networks that includes the notion of QoS in its routing decisions [1][2]....

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  • ...The goal of [1] is to make a comprehensive survey of design issues and techniques for sensor networks describing the physical constraints on sensor nodes and the protocols proposed in all layers of network stack....

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References
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Book
15 Jan 1996-
Abstract: From the Publisher: The indispensable guide to wireless communications—now fully revised and updated! Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice, Second Edition is the definitive modern text for wireless communications technology and system design. Building on his classic first edition, Theodore S. Rappaport covers the fundamental issues impacting all wireless networks and reviews virtually every important new wireless standard and technological development, offering especially comprehensive coverage of the 3G systems and wireless local area networks (WLANs) that will transform communications in the coming years. Rappaport illustrates each key concept with practical examples, thoroughly explained and solved step by step. Coverage includes: An overview of key wireless technologies: voice, data, cordless, paging, fixed and mobile broadband wireless systems, and beyond Wireless system design fundamentals: channel assignment, handoffs, trunking efficiency, interference, frequency reuse, capacity planning, large-scale fading, and more Path loss, small-scale fading, multipath, reflection, diffraction, scattering, shadowing, spatial-temporal channel modeling, and microcell/indoor propagation Modulation, equalization, diversity, channel coding, and speech coding New wireless LAN technologies: IEEE 802.11a/b, HIPERLAN, BRAN, and other alternatives New 3G air interface standards, including W-CDMA, cdma2000, GPRS, UMTS, and EDGE Bluetooth wearable computers, fixed wireless and Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS), and other advanced technologies Updated glossary of abbreviations and acronyms, and a thorolist of references Dozens of new examples and end-of-chapter problems Whether you're a communications/network professional, manager, researcher, or student, Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice, Second Edition gives you an in-depth understanding of the state of the art in wireless technology—today's and tomorrow's.

16,896 citations


"Wireless sensor networks: a survey" refers background in this paper

  • ...The exponent n is closer to four for low-lying antennae and nearground channels [72,82], as is typical in sensor network communication....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
04 Jan 2000-
Abstract: Wireless distributed microsensor systems will enable the reliable monitoring of a variety of environments for both civil and military applications. In this paper, we look at communication protocols, which can have significant impact on the overall energy dissipation of these networks. Based on our findings that the conventional protocols of direct transmission, minimum-transmission-energy, multi-hop routing, and static clustering may not be optimal for sensor networks, we propose LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy), a clustering-based protocol that utilizes randomized rotation of local cluster based station (cluster-heads) to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensors in the network. LEACH uses localized coordination to enable scalability and robustness for dynamic networks, and incorporates data fusion into the routing protocol to reduce the amount of information that must be transmitted to the base station. Simulations show the LEACH can achieve as much as a factor of 8 reduction in energy dissipation compared with conventional outing protocols. In addition, LEACH is able to distribute energy dissipation evenly throughout the sensors, doubling the useful system lifetime for the networks we simulated.

11,951 citations


01 Jan 2000-
TL;DR: LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy), a clustering-based protocol that utilizes randomized rotation of local cluster based station (cluster-heads) to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensors in the network, is proposed.
Abstract: Wireless distributed microsensor systems will enable the reliable monitoring of a variety of environments for both civil and military applications. In this paper, we look at communication protocols, which can have signicant impact on the overall energy dissipation of these networks. Based on our ndings that the conventional protocols of direct transmission, minimum-transmission-energy, multihop routing, and static clustering may not be optimal for sensor networks, we propose LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy), a clustering-based protocol that utilizes randomized rotation of local cluster base stations (cluster-heads) to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensors in the network. LEACH uses localized coordination to enable scalability and robustness for dynamic networks, and incorporates data fusion into the routing protocol to reduce the amount of information that must be transmitted to the base station. Simulations show that LEACH can achieve as much as a factor of 8 reduction in energy dissipation compared with conventional routing protocols. In addition, LEACH is able to distribute energy dissipation evenly throughout the sensors, doubling the useful system lifetime for the networks we simulated.

11,410 citations


"Wireless sensor networks: a survey" refers methods in this paper

  • ...Low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH): LEACH is a clustering-based protocol that minimizes energy dissipation in sensor networks [34]....

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  • ...LEACH [34] Forms clusters to minimize energy dissipation...

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  • ...Data aggregation can be perceived as a set of automated methods of combining the data that comes from many sensor nodes into a set of meaningful information [34]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Aug 2000-
TL;DR: This paper explores and evaluates the use of directed diffusion for a simple remote-surveillance sensor network and its implications for sensing, communication and computation.
Abstract: Advances in processor, memory and radio technology will enable small and cheap nodes capable of sensing, communication and computation. Networks of such nodes can coordinate to perform distributed sensing of environmental phenomena. In this paper, we explore the directed diffusion paradigm for such coordination. Directed diffusion is datacentric in that all communication is for named data. All nodes in a directed diffusion-based network are application-aware. This enables diffusion to achieve energy savings by selecting empirically good paths and by caching and processing data in-network. We explore and evaluate the use of directed diffusion for a simple remote-surveillance sensor network.

6,016 citations


"Wireless sensor networks: a survey" refers background in this paper

  • ...Open research issues for the realization of sensor networks are also discussed....

    [...]

  • ...The required size may be smaller than even a cubic centimeter [69] which is light enough to remain suspended in the air....

    [...]


Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Aug 2000-
TL;DR: The randomized algorithm used by beacons to transmit information, the use of concurrent radio and ultrasonic signals to infer distance, the listener inference algorithms to overcome multipath and interference, and practical beacon configuration and positioning techniques that improve accuracy are described.
Abstract: This paper presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of Cricket, a location-support system for in-building, mobile, location-dependent applications. It allows applications running on mobile and static nodes to learn their physical location by using listeners that hear and analyze information from beacons spread throughout the building. Cricket is the result of several design goals, including user privacy, decentralized administration, network heterogeneity, and low cost. Rather than explicitly tracking user location, Cricket helps devices learn where they are and lets them decide whom to advertise this information to; it does not rely on any centralized management or control and there is no explicit coordination between beacons; it provides information to devices regardless of their type of network connectivity; and each Cricket device is made from off-the-shelf components and costs less than U.S. $10. We describe the randomized algorithm used by beacons to transmit information, the use of concurrent radio and ultrasonic signals to infer distance, the listener inference algorithms to overcome multipath and interference, and practical beacon configuration and positioning techniques that improve accuracy. Our experience with Cricket shows that several location-dependent applications such as in-building active maps and device control can be developed with little effort or manual configuration.

4,072 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
202217
2021450
2020588
2019673
2018822
2017975