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Open accessPosted Content

WIT: Wikipedia-based Image Text Dataset for Multimodal Multilingual Machine Learning

Abstract: The milestone improvements brought about by deep representation learning and pre-training techniques have led to large performance gains across downstream NLP, IR and Vision tasks. Multimodal modeling techniques aim to leverage large high-quality visio-linguistic datasets for learning complementary information (across image and text modalities). In this paper, we introduce the Wikipedia-based Image Text (WIT) Dataset (this https URL) to better facilitate multimodal, multilingual learning. WIT is composed of a curated set of 37.6 million entity rich image-text examples with 11.5 million unique images across 108 Wikipedia languages. Its size enables WIT to be used as a pretraining dataset for multimodal models, as we show when applied to downstream tasks such as image-text retrieval. WIT has four main and unique advantages. First, WIT is the largest multimodal dataset by the number of image-text examples by 3x (at the time of writing). Second, WIT is massively multilingual (first of its kind) with coverage over 100+ languages (each of which has at least 12K examples) and provides cross-lingual texts for many images. Third, WIT represents a more diverse set of concepts and real world entities relative to what previous datasets cover. Lastly, WIT provides a very challenging real-world test set, as we empirically illustrate using an image-text retrieval task as an example.

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Topics: Feature learning (52%)
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Open accessPosted Content
Zirui Wang1, Jiahui Yu2, Adams Wei Yu2, Zihang Dai2  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: With recent progress in joint modeling of visual and textual representations, Vision-Language Pretraining (VLP) has achieved impressive performance on many multimodal downstream tasks. However, the requirement for expensive annotations including clean image captions and regional labels limits the scalability of existing approaches, and complicates the pretraining procedure with the introduction of multiple dataset-specific objectives. In this work, we relax these constraints and present a minimalist pretraining framework, named Simple Visual Language Model (SimVLM). Unlike prior work, SimVLM reduces the training complexity by exploiting large-scale weak supervision, and is trained end-to-end with a single prefix language modeling objective. Without utilizing extra data or task-specific customization, the resulting model significantly outperforms previous pretraining methods and achieves new state-of-the-art results on a wide range of discriminative and generative vision-language benchmarks, including VQA (+3.74% vqa-score), NLVR2 (+1.17% accuracy), SNLI-VE (+1.37% accuracy) and image captioning tasks (+10.1% average CIDEr score). Furthermore, we demonstrate that SimVLM acquires strong generalization and transfer ability, enabling zero-shot behavior including open-ended visual question answering and cross-modality transfer.

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Topics: Language model (51%)

18 Citations


Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/CVPR46437.2021.00356
17 Feb 2021-
Abstract: The availability of large-scale image captioning and visual question answering datasets has contributed significantly to recent successes in vision-and-language pretraining. However, these datasets are often collected with overrestrictive requirements inherited from their original target tasks (e.g., image caption generation), which limit the resulting dataset scale and diversity. We take a step further in pushing the limits of vision-and-language pretraining data by relaxing the data collection pipeline used in Conceptual Captions 3M (CC3M) [54] and introduce the Conceptual 12M (CC12M), a dataset with 12 million image-text pairs specifically meant to be used for visionand-language pre-training. We perform an analysis of this dataset and benchmark its effectiveness against CC3M on multiple downstream tasks with an emphasis on long-tail visual recognition. Our results clearly illustrate the benefit of scaling up pre-training data for vision-and-language tasks, as indicated by the new state-of-the-art results on both the nocaps and Conceptual Captions benchmarks.1

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Topics: Closed captioning (50%)

13 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: The availability of large-scale image captioning and visual question answering datasets has contributed significantly to recent successes in vision-and-language pre-training. However, these datasets are often collected with overrestrictive requirements inherited from their original target tasks (e.g., image caption generation), which limit the resulting dataset scale and diversity. We take a step further in pushing the limits of vision-and-language pre-training data by relaxing the data collection pipeline used in Conceptual Captions 3M (CC3M) [Sharma et al. 2018] and introduce the Conceptual 12M (CC12M), a dataset with 12 million image-text pairs specifically meant to be used for vision-and-language pre-training. We perform an analysis of this dataset and benchmark its effectiveness against CC3M on multiple downstream tasks with an emphasis on long-tail visual recognition. Our results clearly illustrate the benefit of scaling up pre-training data for vision-and-language tasks, as indicated by the new state-of-the-art results on both the nocaps and Conceptual Captions benchmarks.

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Topics: Closed captioning (50%)

4 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: We present a simple but effective approach for leveraging Wikipedia for neural machine translation as well as cross-lingual tasks of image captioning and dependency parsing without using any direct supervision from external parallel data or supervised models in the target language. We show that first sentences and titles of linked Wikipedia pages, as well as cross-lingual image captions, are strong signals for a seed parallel data to extract bilingual dictionaries and cross-lingual word embeddings for mining parallel text from Wikipedia. Our final model achieves high BLEU scores that are close to or sometimes higher than strong supervised baselines in low-resource languages; e.g. supervised BLEU of 4.0 versus 12.1 from our model in English-to-Kazakh. Moreover, we tailor our wikily translation models to unsupervised image captioning and cross-lingual dependency parser transfer. In image captioning, we train a multi-tasking machine translation and image captioning pipeline for Arabic and English from which the Arabic training data is a wikily translation of the English captioning data. Our captioning results in Arabic are slightly better than that of its supervised model. In dependency parsing, we translate a large amount of monolingual text, and use it as an artificial training data in an annotation projection framework. We show that our model outperforms recent work on cross-lingual transfer of dependency parsers.

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Topics: Machine translation (61%), Closed captioning (60%), Parsing (53%) ... read more

4 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: While captioning models have obtained compelling results in describing natural images, they still do not cover the entire long-tail distribution of real-world concepts. In this paper, we address the task of generating human-like descriptions with in-the-wild concepts by training on web-scale automatically collected datasets. To this end, we propose a model which can exploit noisy image-caption pairs while maintaining the descriptive style of traditional human-annotated datasets like COCO. Our model separates content from style through the usage of keywords and stylistic tokens, employing a single objective of prompt language modeling and being simpler than other recent proposals. Experimentally, our model consistently outperforms existing methods in terms of caption quality and capability of describing long-tail concepts, also in zero-shot settings. According to the CIDEr metric, we obtain a new state of the art on both COCO and nocaps when using external data.

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Topics: Language model (54%)

1 Citations


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42 results found


Open accessProceedings Article
Karen Simonyan1, Andrew Zisserman1Institutions (1)
04 Sep 2014-
Abstract: In this work we investigate the effect of the convolutional network depth on its accuracy in the large-scale image recognition setting. Our main contribution is a thorough evaluation of networks of increasing depth using an architecture with very small (3x3) convolution filters, which shows that a significant improvement on the prior-art configurations can be achieved by pushing the depth to 16-19 weight layers. These findings were the basis of our ImageNet Challenge 2014 submission, where our team secured the first and the second places in the localisation and classification tracks respectively. We also show that our representations generalise well to other datasets, where they achieve state-of-the-art results. We have made our two best-performing ConvNet models publicly available to facilitate further research on the use of deep visual representations in computer vision.

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38,283 Citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/CVPR.2009.5206848
Jia Deng1, Wei Dong1, Richard Socher1, Li-Jia Li1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
20 Jun 2009-
Abstract: The explosion of image data on the Internet has the potential to foster more sophisticated and robust models and algorithms to index, retrieve, organize and interact with images and multimedia data. But exactly how such data can be harnessed and organized remains a critical problem. We introduce here a new database called “ImageNet”, a large-scale ontology of images built upon the backbone of the WordNet structure. ImageNet aims to populate the majority of the 80,000 synsets of WordNet with an average of 500-1000 clean and full resolution images. This will result in tens of millions of annotated images organized by the semantic hierarchy of WordNet. This paper offers a detailed analysis of ImageNet in its current state: 12 subtrees with 5247 synsets and 3.2 million images in total. We show that ImageNet is much larger in scale and diversity and much more accurate than the current image datasets. Constructing such a large-scale database is a challenging task. We describe the data collection scheme with Amazon Mechanical Turk. Lastly, we illustrate the usefulness of ImageNet through three simple applications in object recognition, image classification and automatic object clustering. We hope that the scale, accuracy, diversity and hierarchical structure of ImageNet can offer unparalleled opportunities to researchers in the computer vision community and beyond.

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Topics: WordNet (57%), Image retrieval (54%)

31,274 Citations


Open accessBook ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-10602-1_48
Tsung-Yi Lin1, Michael Maire2, Serge Belongie1, James Hays  +4 moreInstitutions (4)
06 Sep 2014-
Abstract: We present a new dataset with the goal of advancing the state-of-the-art in object recognition by placing the question of object recognition in the context of the broader question of scene understanding. This is achieved by gathering images of complex everyday scenes containing common objects in their natural context. Objects are labeled using per-instance segmentations to aid in precise object localization. Our dataset contains photos of 91 objects types that would be easily recognizable by a 4 year old. With a total of 2.5 million labeled instances in 328k images, the creation of our dataset drew upon extensive crowd worker involvement via novel user interfaces for category detection, instance spotting and instance segmentation. We present a detailed statistical analysis of the dataset in comparison to PASCAL, ImageNet, and SUN. Finally, we provide baseline performance analysis for bounding box and segmentation detection results using a Deformable Parts Model.

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Topics: Object detection (54%)

18,843 Citations


Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/CVPR.2016.308
27 Jun 2016-
Abstract: Convolutional networks are at the core of most state of-the-art computer vision solutions for a wide variety of tasks. Since 2014 very deep convolutional networks started to become mainstream, yielding substantial gains in various benchmarks. Although increased model size and computational cost tend to translate to immediate quality gains for most tasks (as long as enough labeled data is provided for training), computational efficiency and low parameter count are still enabling factors for various use cases such as mobile vision and big-data scenarios. Here we are exploring ways to scale up networks in ways that aim at utilizing the added computation as efficiently as possible by suitably factorized convolutions and aggressive regularization. We benchmark our methods on the ILSVRC 2012 classification challenge validation set demonstrate substantial gains over the state of the art: 21:2% top-1 and 5:6% top-5 error for single frame evaluation using a network with a computational cost of 5 billion multiply-adds per inference and with using less than 25 million parameters. With an ensemble of 4 models and multi-crop evaluation, we report 3:5% top-5 error and 17:3% top-1 error on the validation set and 3:6% top-5 error on the official test set.

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Topics: Test set (51%)

12,684 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: We introduce a new language representation model called BERT, which stands for Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers. Unlike recent language representation models, BERT is designed to pre-train deep bidirectional representations from unlabeled text by jointly conditioning on both left and right context in all layers. As a result, the pre-trained BERT model can be fine-tuned with just one additional output layer to create state-of-the-art models for a wide range of tasks, such as question answering and language inference, without substantial task-specific architecture modifications. BERT is conceptually simple and empirically powerful. It obtains new state-of-the-art results on eleven natural language processing tasks, including pushing the GLUE score to 80.5% (7.7% point absolute improvement), MultiNLI accuracy to 86.7% (4.6% absolute improvement), SQuAD v1.1 question answering Test F1 to 93.2 (1.5 point absolute improvement) and SQuAD v2.0 Test F1 to 83.1 (5.1 point absolute improvement).

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Topics: Question answering (54%)

4,099 Citations


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YearCitations
202117