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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/2159676X.2020.1729232

‘Wow these girls can play’: sex integration in professional golf

04 Mar 2021-Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health (Informa UK Limited)-Vol. 13, Iss: 2, pp 217-234
Abstract: Men and women typically operate in separate spaces in the sporting world, with sport being one of the few social institutions that continues to segregate the two sexes. The culture of golf, like sp...

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Book ChapterDOI: 10.1108/978-1-80043-196-620211001
20 Sep 2021-
Abstract: This chapter introduces and sets the scene for a discussion on women's sport in a professional era. Initiated in the wake of the second-wave feminist movement in America in the 1950s with the professionalisation of golf and tennis, the move for other women's sports to be professionalised has been slow, sporadic and marred with difficulties. However, since the turn of the twenty-first century, there have been significant changes in the landscape of elite women's sport. Alongside an overview of the developments in elite level women's sport, we conceptualise the terms ‘professionalisation’, ‘professional’ and ‘professionalism’. Furthermore, the chapter identifies the scope of the book, drawing upon the importance to consider women's sport as distinct from men's sport and identifying issues that are specific to female athletes, such as maternity and the gender pay gap. We also recognise the diverse and multiple nature of women's identities, highlighting the intersectionality of female athletes in professional sport (specifically around race/ethnicity, gender and sexuality, and national identity).

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Topics: Intersectionality (53%), Feminist movement (52%), Gender pay gap (50%)

3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/2159676X.2020.1836507
Abstract: Digital media has played a central role in promoting women’s sport, where female athletes are increasingly using online platforms to control their own representations and challenge male dominated s...

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Topics: Athletes (57%), Digital media (51%)

3 Citations



Open accessBook ChapterDOI: 10.1108/978-1-80043-196-620211014
20 Sep 2021-
Abstract: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in early 2020 prompted widespread global lockdowns as the world looked to contain and reduce the impact of the virus, including a pause on most sporting competitions (Parnell et al., 2020). COVID-19 has greatly affected the world, exposing stark inequalities, especially across gendered lines, in areas of society such as the labour market, domestic responsibility and economic hardship (Alon et al., 2020). Sport is a crucial, interwoven aspect of society and like wider societal trends, elite women's sport has been adversely affected by the pandemic, facing an existential threat (Bowes et al., 2020; Clarkson et al., 2020; Rowe, 2020). The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of how the pandemic is negatively impacting a wide variety of elite women's sports. Specifically, we cover sports where women have traditionally existed on the margins of the sport and could be considered as male-dominated labour industries. Centring primarily on the United Kingdom, we present a brief chronology of the impact of the crisis on elite women's sport, across football, rugby, cricket and golf – in many ways different from the men's versions – spanning the eight months since the start of the pandemic in March 2020 until the time of writing in November 2020. Throughout, the chapter utilises qualitative data from elite sportswomen encouraged to share their experiences during the pandemic (see Bowes et al., 2020). Subsequently, this chapter concludes with a summary of the challenges for women operating in (semi-)professional sports environments.

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Topics: Elite (52%), Football (50%)

Open accessBook ChapterDOI: 10.1108/978-1-80043-196-620211007
20 Sep 2021-
Abstract: The chapter details the development of one of the most lucrative professional sports for women in the world, whilst drawing attention to institutionalised issues of racism and sexism in the sport. We discuss the history of women in professional golf, from the roots of the Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA), through the modern-day game where women now play for large sums of money each week. We then shed light on the development of a global tour which started with the likes of Annika Sorenstam, Lorena Ochoa, and Se Ri Pak dominating a once Americentric tour, and how the LPGA struggled to embrace this cultural shift via the Five Points of Celebrity marketing plan and the contentious English-speaking rule. The discussion then moves to focal point of the chapter: the US media’s reaction to long time American professional golf coach and former radio broadcaster Hank Haney’s disparaging comments before and at the conclusion of the 2019 Women’s US Open. Twenty-five articles were collected from US golf and sport media outlets and coded resulting in four themes: (a) a downplaying of the remarks, (b) ambivalence to the women’s game, (c), a privileging of men, and (d) a global Tour. The chapter concludes with remarks that highlight the media’s struggle to find the appropriate framing and language to cover the incident and how an intersectional approach reveals that oppression of women on the LPGA Tour exists beyond gender.

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48 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1191/1478088706QP063OA
Virginia Braun1, Victoria Clarke2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology. In this paper, we argue that it offers an accessible and theoretically flexible approach to analysing qualitative data. We outline what thematic analysis is, locating it in relation to other qualitative analytic methods that search for themes or patterns, and in relation to different epistemological and ontological positions. We then provide clear guidelines to those wanting to start thematic analysis, or conduct it in a more deliberate and rigorous way, and consider potential pitfalls in conducting thematic analysis. Finally, we outline the disadvantages and advantages of thematic analysis. We conclude by advocating thematic analysis as a useful and flexible method for qualitative research in and beyond psychology.

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77,018 Citations


Open accessBook
01 Jan 2001-
Abstract: PART ONE ; 1. The nature and process of social research ; 2. Social research strategies: quantitative research and qualitative research ; 3. Research designs ; 4. Planning a research project and formulating research questions ; Getting started: reviewing the literature ; 6. Ethics and politics in social research ; PART TWO ; 7. The nature of quantitative research ; 8. Sampling in quantitative research ; 9. Structured interviewing ; 10. Self-administered questionnaires ; 11. Asking questions ; 12. Structured observation ; 13. Content analysis ; 14. Using existing data ; 15. Quantitative data analysis ; 16. Using IBM SPSS for Windows ; PART THREE ; 17. The nature of qualitative research ; 18. Sampling in qualitative research ; 19. Ethnography and participant observation ; 20. Interviewing in qualitative research ; 21. Focus groups ; 22. Language in qualitative research ; 23. Documents as sources of data ; 24. Qualitative data analysis ; 25. Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis: using NVivo ; PART FOUR ; 26. Breaking down the quantitative/qualitative divide ; 27. Mixed methods research: combining quantitative and qualitative research ; 28. Writing up social research

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Topics: Quantitative research (66%), Educational research (65%), Qualitative research (63%) ... show more

17,326 Citations


Open accessBook
01 Jan 1998-
Abstract: PART ONE: FRAMEWORK Guide to this Book Qualitative Research: Why And How to Do It Qualitative and Quantitative Research Approaches to Qualitative Research Ethics of Qualitative Research PART TWO: THEORY IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Using the Existing Literature Theories Underlying Qualitative Research Texts as Data in Qualitative Research PART THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN Designing Qualitative Research The Qualitative Research Process Research Questions Entering the Field Sampling Triangulation PART FOUR: VERBAL DATA Collecting Verbal Data Interviews Focus Groups Using Narrative Data PART FIVE: DATA BEYOND TALK Collecting Data Beyond Talk Observation and Ethnography Visual Data: Photography, Film & Video Using Documents as Data PART SIX: QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS Qualitative Data Analysis Transcription and Data Management Grounded Theory Coding Thematic Coding and Content Analysis Naturally Occuring Data: Conversation, Discourse, and Hermeneutic Analysis Using Software in Qualitative Data Analysis PART SEVEN: GROUNDING, WRITING AND OUTLOOK Quality of Qualitative Research: Criteria and Beyond Writing Qualitative Research State of the Art and the Future

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Topics: Qualitative marketing research (61%), Qualitative research (60%), Grounded theory (60%) ... show more

8,589 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/2159676X.2019.1628806
Virginia Braun1, Victoria Clarke2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Since initially writing on thematic analysis in 2006, the popularity of the method we outlined has exploded, the variety of TA approaches have expanded, and, not least, our thinking has developed a...

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1,116 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/1750984X.2017.1317357
Brett Smith1, Kerry R. McGannon2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Qualitative research has grown within sport and exercise psychology and is now widely conducted The purpose of this review is to discuss three commonly used ways to demonstrate rigor when conducti

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Topics: Sport psychology (64%), Qualitative research (52%)

1,108 Citations


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