scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Young Muslim Pakistani Women's Lived Experiences of Izzat, Mental Health, and Well-Being.

01 Apr 2019-Qualitative Health Research (Qual Health Res)-Vol. 29, Iss: 5, pp 747-757

TL;DR: This article explores how six Pakistani Muslim women interpret cultural concepts of izzat (honor and self-respect); what role, if any, it has in their lives; and whether there is interplay between upholding izz at and the participants’ help-seeking strategies for mental health and well-being.

AbstractThis article explores how six Pakistani Muslim women interpret cultural concepts of izzat (honor and self-respect); what role, if any, it has in their lives; and whether there is interplay between upholding izzat and the participants' help-seeking strategies for mental health and well-being. Semistructured interviews were conducted and analyzed with an interpretative phenomenological analytic framework. Three themes were identified: (a) "the rules of izzat," (b) "negotiating tensions," and (c) "speaking out/breaking the 'rules.'" Findings highlighted new insights into the understanding of izzat and the implications these cultural concepts have for strategies in managing or silencing of psychological distress. Interviews illustrated tensions the participants experience when considering izzat, how these are negotiated to enable them to self-manage or seek help, and possible life experiences that might lead to self-harm and attempted suicide. Notably, cultural codes, in particular izzat, appear to vary over the life course and are influenced by migration.

Topics: Life course approach (51%)

Summary (4 min read)

Background

  • One of the key issues for second-generation South Asian individuals is the development of their cultural identity (Berry, 1997; Bhugra, 2003).
  • The current study focuses on the concept of izzat, acknowledging it as one of many cultural codes or practices (e.g., how relationships are formed and social encounters between members of the opposite sex are conducted,) that may impact the lives of South Asian women as it relates to experiences of psychological distress and well-being.
  • In maintaining the izzat of the family and following cultural practices that have been handed down the family through older generations, South Asian women may experience entrapment while retaining a subordinate role.
  • Previous research found a lower prevalence of psychological distress in South Asian groups in comparison to other ethnic groups and attributed this to being psychologically healthier and having ‘cultural resilience’ in dealing with adversity (Anand & Cochrane, 2005; Cochrane & Stopes Roe, 1981; Hsu, Davies, & Hansen, 2004).

Sample and recruitment

  • A purposive sample of six women, were recruited for this study (Newberry, 2011) living in the London area (UK).
  • London is one of the most ethnically diverse cities in the UK, with the largest South Asian UK population residing in London (Office of National Statistics, 2011).
  • Inclusion criteria included being UK-born (second generation) with parents born in Pakistan and having English as a first language.
  • Participants were recruited through advertisements placed at two universities, a community centre attached to a mosque in East London and charitable organisations.
  • In accordance with Interpretative Phenomenological framework, the target sample size was 6, to allow for detailed and in-depth exploration of the participants’ experience.

Data Collection

  • This study involved conducting semi-structured interviews consisting of open-ended questions and additional prompts aimed to collate detailed, specific, individual narratives different to those narratives seen in the previous research studies reviewed previously.
  • Interview topics and questions tried to enable descriptions of the participants’ ethnic and cultural experiences and also included questions about experiences of mental health (psychological distress and well-being) and help-seeking.
  • Each interview was digitally recorded using a dictaphone.
  • The interviews were transcribed inclusive of non-linguistic elements of conversations as these can also affect the meaning (Willig, 2001).
  • All identifiers were removed and participants were given a pseudonym in order to maintain confidentiality.

Data analysis

  • The researcher (first author) began Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA; Smith, 2009) with an in-depth examination of each individual transcript through multiple readings with attention to the individual’s choice of language, parallels, variation in speech and the language used, repetition, exaggeration and incongruence in the individual’s narrative.
  • Ultimately, the analysis aimed to attend to what is being communicated about the individual’s sense of self.
  • The analytic approach included the following steps: initial themes were noted; possible links between themes were examined; sub-themes were created and arranged into clusters to form master themes; quotations were selected to illustrate each theme (Smith, 2009).
  • The transcripts were collated and re-examined by the first author, paying particular attention to thematic overlap and distinct differences in accounts.
  • This enabled the researcher to make links to existing theoretical knowledge within this area of research.

Results

  • Six British Pakistani Muslim women born in the UK, aged 24-40, were included in the sample.
  • Two of the participants were married with children and two were divorced with children.
  • All participants were in the process of completing or had completed higher education.
  • Analysis of the transcripts generated three main themes and sub-themes within each of these to further illustrate the overarching main theme.
  • The section below describes sub-themes and presents data to support each theme.

Learning the Rules

  • Interview questions facilitated conceptualisations of izzat from the participants’ narratives.
  • Erm, when you speak to men outside, that you’re not, erm, familiar with, or you don’t know, lowering your gaze….
  • As seen within this extract, “if you like it or not, you just.
  • Deal with it”, individuals might take on passive roles in the process of learning the codes of izzat and their adherence to them throughout their lives.
  • One participant spoke of “unwritten rules” which are reaffirmed by the family and community and handed down to subsequent generations.

Pressure to be “Perfect”

  • In response to a query about what it means to uphold the honour of the family, a participant described her own personal desires to be “perfect” which she suggested stemmed from her familial experiences.
  • An example discussed by some participants was how pre-marital sex could result in a woman’s izzat being “ruined”.
  • It was not my life, it’s the aunties and the uncles around me.
  • It would appear that she internalises her distress rather than expressing (what sounds like) frustration which in turn manifests in physical reactions and ill-health.

Tolerating Distress and Isolation

  • A key sub-theme identified by some of the participants was that many young Pakistani Muslim women are expected to “put up” with and ‘tolerate’ their psychological distress over long periods of time.
  • Similarly, it appears that there was an expectation, from her mother, for this individual to stay in her marriage: P: … mum’s only advice if you like she gave me was you have to stay there - your dead body will leave the house.
  • Participant responses suggested that these women’s choices to tolerate unpleasant experiences are also motivated by their own to protect their izzat.
  • If her son’s having trouble getting the right grades.
  • Her family never spoke to her, wouldn’t, couldn’t try to get in touch with her.

Managing distress

  • One of the Pakistani Muslim women emphasised the personal resources and possible coping mechanisms required to be able to manage difficult experiences.
  • Alternatively, the view might be that suicide was considered in the individual’s perception that they have failed to be “perfect”.
  • They chose to disclose their experiences of distress to those deemed appropriate (e.g. friends, older family members and their “Asian community”) and “…highly unlikely, sadly to say, that they would go to the point of telling their GP for instance.”.
  • Similarly, Islamic teachings were perceived as guiding some of the participants in this study to empowerment and standing up for their human rights which, also parallel British legislation and are protective against attempting suicide.
  • It makes a HUGE difference when you know you got back-up.

Leaving their Family

  • As theme 1, sub-theme ‘Tolerating their distress’ showed, this was not an option for many of the participants because of preserving their own and their family’s izzat.
  • In turn, this may impact on their izzat and how others perceived them.
  • Now days divorces are quite common and it’s, it’s ok to get married again and stuff like that, erm, also known as P.
  • For one participant, when a friend suggested that she should leave her husband and end her abusive marriage, she spoke of her initial hesitation to accept this advice.
  • There were examples given by the participants of families who supported and encouraged abused women to leave an abusive marriage and to return home, as one of the participants witnessed in her family: P: I think I stayed there, the time that I did stay there.

Finding Acceptance

  • Some participants spoke about a need to find acceptance as individual Pakistani women in western society and being less restricted by the rules of izzat.
  • There was a suggestion that some Pakistani Muslim women are less accepting of situations that cause them psychological distress and more accepting of finding alternative ways, to manage and even alleviate their distress as set out by cultural codes of conduct.
  • In discussing her friend’s experience, a participant makes comparisons across generations: P: She does, and carries on and this is her life.
  • And people not really prepared to, to put up with what they used to.

Theme Three: Speaking Out/Breaking the ‘rules’

  • (Dis)Respecting Izzat For some young Pakistani Muslim women, attempts to maintain their izzat place them at risk of experiences that cause psychological distress.
  • Therefore these individuals are mindful of how help-seeking impacts on their izzat, how they are “judged” and whether this is disrespecting of their family, friends and the Pakistani Muslim community: P: When it comes to izzat.
  • One thing why women do stay in certain situations, marriages, because they think about the RESPECT for, for the parents….
  • And how their respect will be affected by their friends, families, neighbours and their aunties and uncles.
  • Till you know, it, it err, that specific case led to her death.

Losing Personal and Cultural Identity

  • For some participants, loss of their personal and cultural identity seemed to be an internal barrier to help seeking.
  • And you’re not allowed to go and see, se him… and when she comes back, people criticise her….
  • Within the sub-theme of ‘Learning the Rules’ it was demonstrated how Pakistani Muslim women are regarded as not having izzat if they are unable to maintain relationships and particularly if they are divorced.
  • But then again, you’ve got people like my cousin that wouldn’t take that, the support of what the government offers to women in this situation…, also known as P.

Losing Social Acceptance

  • Izzat can also place a woman in a position where she experiences shame and being disregarded by members of the local community: P: You know that whole thing I said to you that about erm, not having people from outside come and know your business.
  • That’s the whole, that’s whole izzat thing as well.
  • You know, to, not, to not air your dirty laundry in public.
  • This sub-theme was also evidenced in one of the participant’s reflections of how seeking help could possibly impact an individual’s positioning or standing in their community, the experience of shame and embarrassment.
  • They don’t, they feel shy actually, they think that it’s not er, a good thing to go to, go to er Psychiatrist right…”.

Discussion

  • Suicide has also been regarded by some women as a strategy for coping with abuse (Gilbert et al. 2004).
  • Yet it is acknowledged that izzat is only one element of South Asian culture, and there may be other relevant and even more pertinent features that impact the lived experiences of the individuals involved in this study (Sari & Gençöz, 2015).
  • The researcher recruited a small sample of Pakistani Muslim women living in London, which has a diverse ethnic population, for the purpose of this study.
  • Merits of previous research by Gilbert et al. (2004) were their use of focus groups, which appeared to enable individuals to discuss issues of a sensitive nature that are closer to real-life than in quantitative studies.

Did you find this useful? Give us your feedback

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

King’s Research Portal
DOI:
10.1177/1049732318803094
Document Version
Peer reviewed version
Link to publication record in King's Research Portal
Citation for published version (APA):
Gunasinghe, C. M., Hatch, S. L., & Lawrence, J. (2018). Young Muslim Pakistani Women’s Lived Experiences of
Izzat, Mental Health and Well-being. Qualitative Health Research. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732318803094
Citing this paper
Please note that where the full-text provided on King's Research Portal is the Author Accepted Manuscript or Post-Print version this may
differ from the final Published version. If citing, it is advised that you check and use the publisher's definitive version for pagination,
volume/issue, and date of publication details. And where the final published version is provided on the Research Portal, if citing you are
again advised to check the publisher's website for any subsequent corrections.
General rights
Copyright and moral rights for the publications made accessible in the Research Portal are retained by the authors and/or other copyright
owners and it is a condition of accessing publications that users recognize and abide by the legal requirements associated with these rights.
•Users may download and print one copy of any publication from the Research Portal for the purpose of private study or research.
•You may not further distribute the material or use it for any profit-making activity or commercial gain
•You may freely distribute the URL identifying the publication in the Research Portal
Take down policy
If you believe that this document breaches copyright please contact librarypure@kcl.ac.uk providing details, and we will remove access to
the work immediately and investigate your claim.
Download date: 09. Aug. 2022

Young Muslim Pakistani Women’s Lived Experiences of Izzat, Mental Health and Well-
being.
Cerisse Gunasinghe
a
, Stephani L. Hatch
a
& Jane Lawrence
b
a
Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience. King’s College
London, Denmark Hill, London, United Kingdom
a
Student Support Centre, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ.
United Kingdom
Correspondence: Cerisse Gunasinghe
Department of Psychological Medicine, King’s College London, Institute of Psychiatry,
Psychology and Neuroscience, London, United Kingdom
Email: cerisse.gunasinghe@kcl.ac.uk
Keywords: culture / cultural competence, mental health and illness, well-being,
self-harm, suicide

Abstract
This article explores how six Pakistani Muslim women interpret cultural concepts of
izzat (honour and self-respect), what role, if any, it has in their lives and whether there is
interplay between upholding izzat and the participants' help-seeking strategies for
mental health and well-being. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed
with an Interpretative Phenomenological Analytic framework. Three themes were
identified: 1) “The rules of izzat”, 2) “Negotiating tensions” and 3) “Speaking
out/breaking the ‘rules’ ”. Findings highlighted new insights into the understanding of
izzat and the implications these cultural concepts have for strategies in managing or
silencing of psychological distress. Interviews illustrated tensions the participants
experience when considering izzat; how these are negotiated to enable them to self-
manage or seek help and possible life experiences that might lead to self-harm and
attempted suicide. Notably, cultural codes, in particular izzat, appear to vary over the
life course and are influenced by migration.

Background
Over a decade ago, a series of studies exploring cultural and ethnic variations of
psychological distress highlighted that family pressure and abuse (Hicks & Bhugra, 2003);
cultural conflict (Bhugra, Baldwin, Desai, Jacob & Baldwin, 1999); familial expectations of
women to maintain traditional gender-specific roles and acquiring an education and
professional career were contributors to suicidal acts in British South Asian women (Bhugra,
2003; Bhugra et al. 1999; Hicks & Bhugra, 2003). It has been observed that allegiance and
preservation of cultural concepts, practices and values occurs within these ethnic groups
residing outside of South Asian countries (Krause, 1989; Peach, 2006). One of the key issues
for second-generation South Asian individuals is the development of their cultural identity
(Berry, 1997; Bhugra, 2003). In particular, the processes of acculturation and maintaining
cultural practices have been considered to impact well-being and psychological distress
(Padela, Kilawi, Forman, DeMonner, & Heisler, 2012; Krause, 1989; Triandis, 1989). While
there is some dilution in cultural concepts from first generation immigrants to subsequent
generations, these processes can be difficult to navigate for individuals born in countries,
such as the UK, with parents who migrated from Southern Asia (Dwyer, 2000; Faver, Narang
& Bhadha, 2002). The basis of identity formation and culture related behaviours often stems
from generational “life-histories” produced by familial and social kinship (Das, 1976).
However, modern conceptualisations of personhood (i.e. the individual in relation to the self,
others, the community and society) can only be understood in the context of non-Western
historical, cultural and community influences on its development (Fowler, 2004).
Cultural concepts, such as izzat, often inform and impact the coping and help-seeking
strategies utilised to manage such experiences. The concept of izzat (i.e., the semantic
meaning and the associated practices) translates across the diversity of South Asian cultures

and has particular impact on women (Chew-Graham, Bashir, Chantler, Burman, & Batsleer,
2002; Gilbert, Gilbert & Sanghera, 2004). In observations of Indian culture, Takhar (2005)
explains izzat as “honour”, “self-respect” and “prestige”. Maintaining honour and kinship
with the family, community and society are integral to South Asian culture and considered to
be protective against shame and ill-health (Das, 1976; Krause, 1989). Therefore, upholding
izzat may strongly inform and influence the social interactions; moralistic values; the
sexuality of men and women; what is deemed as accepted behaviours; obligations of women
in particular social roles, experiences of health and illness, of those from many South Asian
ethnic backgrounds (Krause, 1989; Gilbert et al, 2004; Toor, 2009). Furthermore, family
dishonour can have an impact on individual members’ self-identity or self-respect, and
externalised to immediate and extended family members, as there is less of a distinction
between the self and others (Takhar, 2005). Literature suggests that some South Asian
women may be positioned in roles inferior to men and often susceptible to being shamed and
family dishonour can have an impact on both immediate and extended family members
(Takhar, 2005; Triandis, 1989). Takhar (2005) suggests that izzat often dictates the
obligations of South Asian women who often sacrifice their own desires for the sake of their
family’s izzat. In her observations of Indian culture, Takhar (2005) suggests that izzat
translates as “honour”, “self-respect” and “prestige”. Accepted behaviours, particularly in
social interactions, of those from many South Asian ethnic backgrounds may therefore be
strongly influenced by the notion of izzat (Gilbert et al, 2004; Toor, 2009). The current study
focuses on the concept of izzat, acknowledging it as one of many cultural codes or practices
(e.g., how relationships are formed and social encounters between members of the opposite
sex are conducted,) that may impact the lives of South Asian women as it relates to
experiences of psychological distress and well-being. Gilbert et al. (2004) further developed
this area of research by demonstrating that entrapment was also associated with izzat. In

Citations
More filters

DissertationDOI
01 Jan 2019
Abstract: A complex web of development organisations has emerged from efforts to alleviate the problems of enduring and gross inequalities in formerly Third World countries such as Bangladesh. While the social and economic circumstances of Bangladesh have improved, its democratic institutions have struggled, leading to a so-called ‘paradox’ of development. In this context economists and political scientists question the role of a growing global middle class, while postcolonial critics interrogate the very notion of ‘development’ and advocate alternative ‘post-development’ scenarios. In this milieu it is important to understand how dominant macro-policies and different perspectives affect the material realities of working for development on the ground. Previous research on the personnel of development aid has revealed a host of ethical, moral and political dilemmas, contradictions and paradoxes associated with aid work not least those faced by feminists within bureaucracies. The literature has tended to focus on international NGO workers from the global north. By contrast, this is a study of 24 English-speaking Bangladeshi individuals who are engaged in development work through NGOs, and other forms of activism within their own country. The aim of the research is to understand how these development workers negotiate the complex dilemmas and conflicting demands, and manage the emotional labour and demands of working for progressive social change. A psychosocial approach transcends the usual altruism-egotism binary to better understand the actions of and influences on this group, and allows for the interrogation of privilege, power and agency, and the relationships and emotional investments at stake. A narrative methodology helps reveal the conditions in which an individual life is lived and given meaning, and in which the development of the self and others can occur. Analytically, the study draws upon Bourdieusian models of social class distinctions, contemporary theorizations of the politics of emotions, and is informed by British psychoanalytic traditions. The study found a stratum of reflexive, well-resourced and highly committed workers and activists who skillfully manage the everyday dilemmas of development, albeit at some emotional cost. They are constrained by subjective classed and gendered identities and objective structures of governance. The women in the study were struggling for empowerment and opportunity both inside and outside the workplace despite the equalities discourse espoused by their NGO employers. The significance of family and kin, and wider identifications, compete with the ed framings of a neo-liberal development paradigm and further suggest the need for a re-consideration of the ethos and ethics of ‘development’.

38 citations


Cites background from "Young Muslim Pakistani Women's Live..."

  • ...Such constraints are more extensive in the socially and religiously conservative northern region of Sylhet, but the relatively privileged women in my sample were also affected by notions of upholding both self-respect and the prestige or honour of their families (Gunasinghe et al., 2018)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Sikh Identity: an exploration of groups among Sikhs Opinderjit Kaur Takhar Ashgate, 2005 215 pp., $100.00, ISBN 978-0-7546-5202-5Opinderjit Kaur Takhar's Sikh Identity begins with the question ‘Who...

22 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
27 Jan 2020
Abstract: Abstract Objectives The objective of this research is to explore how Pakistani community perceive their mental health problems by systematically reviewing the scientific literature published on major databases. The findings expectedly will be useful for general public, for clinicians and for the researchers. Methods The methodology of this systematic literature search involved identifying and critically appraising studies that attempted to explore how Pakistani community perceives and understands its mental health problems. We carried out literature search on some major databases including PubMed, Cochrane database of systematic reviews and Google Scholar. We followed selection criteria where researchers aimed to find perceptions and understandings of Pakistani participants regarding their mental health by adopting scientific methodologies. The extraction of data was carried out after reading the selected papers and organising the findings under specific categories, in the form of a table. Data analysis was based on the information gathered from these studies. Results The results suggest that Pakistani community exhibits negligible to little understanding regarding their psychological experiences and emotional processes as separate identifiable entities. Nonetheless, multiple parallel sociocultural concepts such as religion or faith driven practices and mythical or supernatural understandings are highlighted by this research. These are accepted and practiced in order to address mental health problems. Conclusion It appears that Pakistani community has limited understanding and scarce vocabulary to describe their inner psychological and emotional experiences. However, in order to address the mental health issues, the community exhibits a variety of responses and reactions that are driven from several unique social, cultural and religious factors. Whether these are general perceptions or causations or protective factors towards illness or possible treatment options, they all are approached and addressed with some unique understandings and perceptions that are specific to this community.

4 citations


Cites background from "Young Muslim Pakistani Women's Live..."

  • ...Gunasinghe et al. 2018 UK Semi- structured Interview 6 Gender: All females Method of sampling: Purposive sampling Age: 24 to 40 years Six semi structured interviews followed by IPT “Understanding how izzat impacts the lived experiences of young Muslim Pakistani women in the UK: A phenomenological…...

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The cultural construct ‘shame’ (sharam) is cited as an oppressive force that controls and perpetuates patriarchal structures within particular cultures. ‘Shame’ and the related construct ‘honour’ (...

1 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Suicide is a serious global public health problem and the third leading cause of death in those 15–35 years old. Self-harm is the major predictor of future suicide attempts and completed suicide yet remains poorly understood. There is limited evidence on effective interventions for adolescents who present with self-harm. To identify and develop acceptable preventive and therapeutic interventions it is essential to understand the factors that contribute to self-harm and suicide in young people, in the context of their emotions, interpersonal difficulties, available support and prevention strategies. This qualitative study aimed at exploring the lived experiences of adolescents presenting with self-harm and their views about potential prevention strategies. Semi-structured interviews with 16 adolescents (12–18 years) presenting with a self-harm episode in a public hospital in Pakistan. A topic guide was developed to facilitate the interviews. The following themes emerged using the framework analysis; predisposing factors (interpersonal conflicts, emotional crisis etc.), regret and realization that self-harm is not the only option, perceived impact of self-harm, and suggestions for suicide prevention strategies (sharing, distraction techniques, involvement of family). This study may help in refining a contextual and culturally based explanatory model of self-harm in adolescents and in informing development of culturally acceptable interventions.

References
More filters

Book
03 Jun 2009
Abstract: Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) is an increasingly popular approach to qualitative inquiry. This handy text covers its theoretical foundations and provides a detailed guide to conducting IPA research. Extended worked examples from the authors' own studies in health, sexuality, psychological distress and identity illustrate the breadth and depth of IPA research. Each of the chapters also offers a guide to other good exemplars of IPA research in the designated area. The final section of the book considers how IPA connects with other contemporary qualitative approaches like discourse and narrative analysis and how it addresses issues to do with validity. The book is written in an accessible style and will be extremely useful to students and researchers in psychology and related disciplines in the health and social sciences.

6,626 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...In observations of Indian culture, Takhar (2005) explains izzat as “honour”, “self-respect” and “prestige”....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
John W. Berry1
Abstract: La psychologie interculturelle a montre qu'il existait des rapports etroits entre le contexte culturel et le developpement comportemental de l'individu. Cette relation etablie, l'effort des recherches interculturelles a de plus en plus porte sur ce qu'il advenait des individus quand ils tentaient de refaire leur vie dans une culture differente de leur culture d'origine. Les consequences psychologiques a long terme de ce processus d'acculturation sont tres variables, dependant de variables sociales et personnelles qui renvoient a la societe de depart, a la societe d'accueil et a des phenomenes qui existent avant, mais qui emergent pendant la periode d'acculturation. Cet article esquisse un schema conceptuel a partir duquel acculturation et adaptation peuvent ětre etudiees, puis presente quelques conclusions et resultats generaux tires d'un echantillon de travaux empiriques. On envisage des applications possibles a la politique et aux programmes d'insertion en prenant en consideration les couts et les benefices sociaux et psychologiques emanant de l'adoprion d'une orientation pluraliste et integrationniste. Cross-cultural psychology has demonstrated important links between cultural context and individual behavioural development. Given this relationship, cross-cultural research has increasingly investigated what happens to individuals who have developed in one cultural context when they attempt to re-establish their lives in another one. The long-term psychological consequences of this process of acculturation are highly variable, depending on social and personal variables that reside in the society of origin, the society of settlement. and phenomena that both exist prior to, and arise during, the course of acculturation. This article outlines a conceptual framework within which acculturation and adaptation can be investigated, and then presents some general findings and conclusions based on a sample of empirical studies. Applications to public policy and programmes are proposed. along with a consideration of the social and psychological costs and benefits of adopting a pluralist and integrationist orientation to these issues.

6,270 citations


"Young Muslim Pakistani Women's Live..." refers background in this paper

  • ...One of the key issues for second-generation South Asian individuals is the development of their cultural identity (Berry, 1997; Bhugra, 2003)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Three aspects of the self(private, public, collective) with different probabilities in different kinds of social environments were sampled. Three dimensions of cultural variation (individualism--collectivism, tightness-looseness, cultural complexity) are discussed in relation to the sampling of these three aspects of the self. The more complex the culture, the more frequent the sampling of the public and private self and the less frequent the sampling of the collective self. The more individualistic the culture, the more frequent the sampling of the private self and the less frequent the sampling of the collective self. Collectivism, external threat, competition with outgroups, and common fate increase the sampling of the collective self. Cultural homogeneity results in tightness and in the sampling of the collective self. The article outlines theoretical links among aspects of the environment, childrearing patterns, and cultural patterns, which are linked to differential sampling of aspects of the self. Such sampling has implications for social behavior. Empirical investigations of some of these links are reviewed.

4,484 citations


"Young Muslim Pakistani Women's Live..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Literature suggests that some South Asian women may be positioned in roles inferior to men and often susceptible to being shamed and family dishonour can have an impact on both immediate and extended family members (Takhar, 2005; Triandis, 1989)....

    [...]

  • ...In particular, the processes of acculturation and maintaining cultural practices have been considered to impact well-being and psychological distress (Padela, Kilawi, Forman, DeMonner, & Heisler, 2012; Krause, 1989; Triandis, 1989)....

    [...]


Book
01 Jan 2008
Abstract: List of boxes chapter one: From recipes to adventures How, and what, can we know? Positivism Empiricism Hypothetico-deductivism Critique of the 'scientific method' Feminist critique of established epistemologies Social constructionism Epistemology and methodology Qualitative research Overview of the book Three epistemological questions Further reading chapter two: Qualitative research design General principles of qualitative research design The research question Choosing the 'right' method Semi-structured interviewing Participant observation Diaries Focus groups Further reading chapter three: Grounded Theory Basic principles of Grounded Theory An example of Grounded Theory Versions of Grounded Theory Limitations of Grounded Theory as a method for psychological research Three epistemological questions Further reading chapter four: Phenomenological methods Phenomenology The phenomenological method Phenomenology and psychology Descriptive phenomenology Interpretative phenomenology Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis Doing Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis Analysis of an individual case Worked example Integration of cases Interpretation Writing up An example of IPA Limitations of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis Three epistemological questions Conclusion Further reading chapter five: Case studies Research methods for psychological case studies Types of design for case study research Procedural issues An example of case study research Limitations of case study research Three epistemological questions Conclusion Further reading chapter six: Discursive Psychology The 'turn to language' Discursive Psychology and Foucauldian Discourse Analysis Discursive Psychology An example of discourse analysis Limitations of discursive psychology Three epistemological questions Further reading chapter seven: Foucauldian Discourse Analysis Selecting texts for analysis Procedural guidelines for the analysis of discourse An illustration of the application of the six stages to an interview extract Limitations of Foucauldian Discourse Analysis Three epistemological questions Key differences between Discursive Psychology and Foucauldian Discourse Analysis Further reading chapter eight: Working with memories Narrative psychology Memory work Why memories? Data collection and analysis 'Saying sorry': an example of data analysis in Memory Work Limitations of Memory Work Three epistemological questions Conclusion Further reading chapter nine: Quality in qualitative research What constitutes 'good' qualitative research? Epistemology and evaluation Evaluation of the methods introduced in this book Some caveats Opportunities and limitations in qualitative research A word about technology 'What' and 'how' Further reading Appendix one: What is understood by 'dominance'? An interpretation through memories Goran Petronic Reflexive preface Abstract Introduction Method Participants Procedure Analysis of memories Comparison of memories Discussion References Appendix two: A qualitative study of the occurrence of abuse in one heterosexual and in one lesbian relationship Kris dew Valour Reflexive preface Abstract Introduction Method Reflexivity Results Discussion References Appendix Appendix three:The emotional experience of looking at art : an observation in the National Gallery Karolina Mornsjo Reflexive preface Abstract Introduction Method Setting Participants Ethical consideration The paintings Practical considerations Analysis Discussion References References Index

2,684 citations


"Young Muslim Pakistani Women's Live..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The interviews were transcribed inclusive of non-linguistic elements of conversations as these can also affect the meaning (Willig, 2001)....

    [...]

  • ...elements of conversations as these can also affect the meaning (Willig, 2001)....

    [...]


Book
20 May 2004
Abstract: Bringing together a wealth of research in social and cultural anthropology, philosophy and related fields, this is the first book to address the contribution that an understanding of personhood can make to our interpretations of the past Applying an anthropological approach to detailed case studies from European prehistoric archaeology, the book explores the connection between people, animals, objects, their societies and environments and investigates the relationship that jointly produces bodies, persons, communities and artefacts. The Archaeology of Personhood examines the characteristics that define a person as a category of being, highlights how definitions of personhood are culturally variable and explores how that variation is connected to human uses of material culture.

389 citations


"Young Muslim Pakistani Women's Live..." refers background in this paper

  • ...However, modern conceptualisations of personhood (i.e. the individual in relation to the self, others, the community and society) can only be understood in the context of non-Western historical, cultural and community influences on its development (Fowler, 2004)....

    [...]

  • ...historical, cultural and community influences on its development (Fowler, 2004)....

    [...]