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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00449-021-02530-W

Zinc oxide and zinc oxide-based nanostructures: biogenic and phytogenic synthesis, properties and applications

04 Mar 2021-Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering (Springer Berlin Heidelberg)-Vol. 44, Iss: 7, pp 1333-1372
Abstract: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are considered as very significant and essential material due to its multifunctional properties, stability, low cost and wide usage. Many green and biogenic approaches for ZnO NPs synthesis have been reported using various sources such as plants and microorganisms. Plants contain biomolecules that can act as capping, oxidizing and reducing agents that increase the rate of reaction and stabilizes the NPs. This review emphasizes and compiles different types of plants and parts of plant used for the synthesis of ZnO and its potential applications at one place. The influence of biogenic and phytogenic synthesized ZnO on its properties and possible mechanisms for its fabrication has been discussed. This review also highlights the potential applications and future prospects of phytogenic synthesized ZnO in the field of energy production and storage, sun light harvesting, environmental remediation, and biological applications.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/D1TB00248A
Abstract: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are a sought-after material in numerous fields due to their potential applications such as in catalysis, cancer therapy, photocatalytic degradation of pollutants, sensors, polishing agents. Green synthesis usually involves the production of CeO2 assisted by organic extracts obtained from plants, leaves, flowers, bacteria, algae, food, fruits, etc. The phytochemicals present in the organic extracts adhere to the NPs and act as reducing and/or oxidizing agents and capping agents to stabilize the NPs, modify the particle size, morphology and band gap energy of the as-synthesized materials, which would be advantageous for numerous applications. This review focuses on the green extract-mediated synthesis of CeO2 NPs and discusses the effects on CeO2 NPs of various synthesis methods that have been reported. Several photocatalytic, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxicity applications have been evaluated, compared and discussed. Future prospects are also suggested.

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4 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JECE.2021.105481
Abstract: A cost-effective phytogenic fabrication of zinc oxide (ZnO) and copper-doped zinc oxide (Cu-doped ZnO) using aqueous leaf extract of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. was successfully demonstrated. The structural, morphological and optical studies have been carried out using various techniques. XPS, XRD analysis and FT-IR spectroscopic studies confirmed the successful synthesis, crystalline nature and purity of synthesized ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO. UV–visible diffuse reflectance spectra showed reduction of band gap energies from 3.11 to 2.54 eV as Cu doping increases from 0% to 5%. SEM images revealed the synthesized ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO are irregular and spherical shaped, respectively. Antibacterial property of the synthesized materials were evaluated against Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative Escherichia coli using different concentrations. This investigation revealed that the synthesized materials were able to inhibit the activity of Staphylococcus aureus better than Escherichia coli under both dark and visible light conditions with the highest inhibition of 9.33 ± 0.58 mm under light irradiation. The synthesized materials were also found to effectively scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals in the dark and an enhancement of the scavenging activity was observed under visible light irradiation.

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2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00449-021-02643-2
Abstract: In this study, potassium-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles (K-doped ZnO NPs) were green-synthesized using pine pollen extracts based on bioethics principles. The synthesized NPs were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cytotoxicity of these nanoparticles (NPs) on normal macrophage cells and cancer cell lines was evaluated. In the same concentrations of K-doped ZnO and pure ZnO NPs, K-doped ZnO NPs demonstrated higher toxicity. The results confirmed that the doped potassium could increase cytotoxicity. The IC50 of K-doped ZnO NPs, pure ZnO NPs, and the examined control drug were 497 ± 15, 769 ± 12, and 606 ± 19 µg/mL, respectively. Considering the obtained IC50 of K-doped ZnO NPs, they were more toxic to the cancer cell lines and had less cytotoxicity on normal macrophage cells.

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1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/08927014.2021.1948538
01 Jul 2021-Biofouling
Abstract: Candida albicans undergoes a morphological yeast-to-hyphal transition during infection, which plays a significant role in its pathogenesis. The filamentous morphology of the hyphal form has been identified as a virulence factor as it facilitates surface adherence, intertwining with biofilm, invasion, and damage to host tissues and organs. Hence, inhibition of filamentation in addition to biofilm formation is considered a viable strategy against C. albicans infections. Furthermore, a good understanding of the signaling pathways involved in response to environmental cues driving hyphal growth is also critical to an understanding of C. albicans pathogenicity and to develop novel therapies. In this review, first the clinical significance and transcriptional control of C. albicans hyphal morphogenesis are addressed. Then, various strategies employed to suppress filamentation, prevent biofilm formation, and reduce virulence are discussed. These strategies include the inhibition of C. albicans filament formation using natural or synthetic compounds, and their combination with other agents or nanoformulations.

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Topics: Hyphal growth (64%), Candida albicans (61%), Corpus albicans (55%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00449-021-02656-X
Abstract: Synthesized cerium oxide nanoparticles (S-CeO2 NPs) and 1%, 5% and 10% zirconium doped CeO2 (Zr-doped CeO2) NPs were fabricated using aqueous leaf extract of Pometia pinnata. The synthesized NPs were characterized using standard techniques which confirmed successful synthesis of NPs with particle size ranging from 12 to 23 nm and band gap energy of 2.54–2.66 eV. Photoantioxidant activities showed enhanced activities under visible light irradiation in comparison to the dark condition in the dose-dependent study. Biofilm inhibition studies showed ~ 73% biofilm inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus at 512 µg/mL for S-CeO2, whereas 10% Zr-doped CeO2 NPs showed biofilm inhibition of 52.7%. The bactericidal tests showed killing properties at 1024 µg/mL of S-CeO2 NPs and at 512 µg/mL of 1% Zr-doped CeO2. Reduced bactericidal activities were observed for 5% and 10% Zr-doped CeO2. These studies showed that the fabricated NPs have both good photoantioxidant and antibacterial properties.

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References
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201 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/238037A0
Akira Fujishima1, Kenichi Honda2Institutions (2)
07 Jul 1972-Nature
Abstract: ALTHOUGH the possibility of water photolysis has been investigated by many workers, a useful method has only now been developed. Because water is transparent to visible light it cannot be decomposed directly, but only by radiation with wavelengths shorter than 190 nm (ref. 1).

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24,267 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S40820-015-0040-X
19 Apr 2015-Nano-micro Letters
Abstract: Antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) has received significant interest worldwide particularly by the implementation of nanotechnology to synthesize particles in the nanometer region. Many microorganisms exist in the range from hundreds of nanometers to tens of micrometers. ZnO-NPs exhibit attractive antibacterial properties due to increased specific surface area as the reduced particle size leading to enhanced particle surface reactivity. ZnO is a bio-safe material that possesses photo-oxidizing and photocatalysis impacts on chemical and biological species. This review covered ZnO-NPs antibacterial activity including testing methods, impact of UV illumination, ZnO particle properties (size, concentration, morphology, and defects), particle surface modification, and minimum inhibitory concentration. Particular emphasize was given to bactericidal and bacteriostatic mechanisms with focus on generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), OH− (hydroxyl radicals), and O2 −2 (peroxide). ROS has been a major factor for several mechanisms including cell wall damage due to ZnO-localized interaction, enhanced membrane permeability, internalization of NPs due to loss of proton motive force and uptake of toxic dissolved zinc ions. These have led to mitochondria weakness, intracellular outflow, and release in gene expression of oxidative stress which caused eventual cell growth inhibition and cell death. In some cases, enhanced antibacterial activity can be attributed to surface defects on ZnO abrasive surface texture. One functional application of the ZnO antibacterial bioactivity was discussed in food packaging industry where ZnO-NPs are used as an antibacterial agent toward foodborne diseases. Proper incorporation of ZnO-NPs into packaging materials can cause interaction with foodborne pathogens, thereby releasing NPs onto food surface where they come in contact with bad bacteria and cause the bacterial death and/or inhibition.

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Topics: Antibacterial agent (66%), Membrane permeability (54%), Antibacterial activity (52%) ... read more

1,784 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FMICB.2018.00001
Abstract: In the 2016/2017 winter season in Japan, HuNoV GII.P16-GII.2 strains (2016 strains) emerged and caused large outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. To better understand the outbreaks, we examined the molecular evolution of the VP1 gene and RdRp region in 2016 strains from patients by studying their time-scale evolutionary phylogeny, positive/negative selection, conformational epitopes, and phylodynamics. The time-scale phylogeny suggested that the common ancestors of the 2016 strains VP1 gene and RdRp region diverged in 2006 and 1999, respectively, and that the 2016 strain was the progeny of a pre-2016 GII.2. The evolutionary rates of the VP1 gene and RdRp region were around 10-3 substitutions/site/year. Amino acid substitutions (position 341) in an epitope in the P2 domain of 2016 strains were not found in pre-2016 GII.2 strains. Bayesian skyline plot analyses showed that the effective population size of the VP1 gene in GII.2 strains was almost constant for those 50 years, although the number of patients with NoV GII.2 increased in 2016. The 2016 strain may be involved in future outbreaks in Japan and elsewhere.

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1,099 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0022-1759(86)90215-2
Denis Gerlier1, Nicole Thomasset1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The MTT tetrazolium salt colorimetric assay previously described by Mosmann (1983, J. Immunol. Methods 65, 55) to measure cytotoxicity and cell proliferation was further explored to extend its application to the measurement of cell activation. The level of MTT cleavage by viable cells of various origins was found to be directly proportional to the number of cells but to increase as a non-linear function of time. This non-linear relationship was related to a time-linear cell death during MTT incubation. The cleavage of MTT by viable cells was found to follow first order kinetics and could be fitted to Michaelis' kinetics. Different cell types exhibited similar apparent Km values (1949 microM) and different apparent maximal velocities (V). The apparent V values determined for a given cell type under different experimental conditions were rigorously similar. This analysis of MTT cleavage by viable cells suggests that the colorimetric MTT test can be useful to quantify the activation level of cells, independently of proliferation.

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Topics: Cell activation (58%), Cell growth (50%)

963 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MATERRESBULL.2011.07.046
Abstract: Biological methods for nanoparticle synthesis using microorganisms, enzymes, and plants or plant extracts have been suggested as possible ecofriendly alternatives to chemical and physical methods. In this paper, we report on the synthesis of nanostructured zinc oxide particles by both chemical and biological method. Highly stable and spherical zinc oxide nanoparticles are produced by using zinc nitrate and Aloe vera leaf extract. Greater than 95% conversion to nanoparticles has been achieved with aloe leaf broth concentration greater than 25%. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by using UV–Vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, Photoluminescence, SEM, TEM and XRD analysis. SEM and TEM analysis shows that the zinc oxide nanoparticles prepared were poly dispersed and the average size ranged from 25 to 40 nm. The particles obtained have been found to be predominantly spherical and the particle size could be controlled by varying the concentrations of leaf broth solution.

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Topics: Zinc nitrate (59%), Zinc (56%), Nanoparticle (51%)

595 Citations