What biomarkers are associated with response to immunotherapy treatment?5 answersBiomarkers associated with response to immunotherapy treatment include tumor-intrinsic and -extrinsic features, as well as liquid biopsy measurements of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA). In patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), the abundance of granzyme K (GZMK)+ CD8+ effector memory T (TEM) cells may be associated with treatment response. Predictive biomarkers of response to cancer immunotherapy, such as PD-L1 expression and tumor mutational burden, have been approved by the FDA. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), programmed death-ligand 1 expression and tumor mutational burden correlate with higher pathological response rates and survival. Additionally, blood-based ratios, microbiota, and baseline intratumoral TCR clonality are emerging biomarkers for immunotherapy response. The database analysis identified SPIN1, SRC, SETD7, FGFR3, YAP1, TEAD3, and BCL2 as druggable gene candidates associated with anti-PD-1 resistance. Mismatch-repair genes MLH1 and MSH6 are also correlated with survival in anti-PD-1 treatment.
Can vitiligo be caused by oral medications?5 answersYes, vitiligo can be caused by oral medications.Medications such as isotretinoin have been reported to potentially precipitate vitiligo.Additionally, certain oral medications, including anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) agents, have been associated with vitiligo.However, it is important to note that the exact mechanisms by which these medications induce vitiligo are not fully understood.Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that oral administration of certain substances, such as mushroom tyrosinase, may have practical implications in preventing vitiligo.Therefore, while oral medications can potentially cause vitiligo, further research is needed to fully understand the relationship between specific medications and the development of vitiligo.
Plants used in the treatment of vitiligo?5 answersPlants used in the treatment of vitiligo include L-phenylalanine, traditional Chinese medicine products, Ginkgo biloba, and Nigella sativa seed oil. L-phenylalanine has been shown to have beneficial effects when used as monotherapy or as an adjuvant to phototherapy. Traditional Chinese medicine products have also shown benefit in treating vitiligo, although the quality of the trials was poor. Ginkgo biloba has shown moderate evidence of effectiveness as monotherapy for vitiligo. Nigella sativa seed oil has been found to contribute to repigmentation, particularly in sensitive areas like the genital region. Other plants that have been highlighted for their potential use in vitiligo treatment include Ammi visnaga L., Angelica sinensis, Eclipta alba L., Picrorhiza kurroa Royle Ex Benth, and Psoralea corylifolia L..
Plant based medicines for the treatment of vitiligo?5 answersPlant-based medicines have shown potential for the treatment of vitiligo. Natural compounds such as flavonoids, phenols, glycosides, and coumarins have been found to have a protective role in melanocytes and can help arrest depigmentation. Herbal medicines like Ammi visnaga L., Angelica sinensis, Eclipta alba L, Ginkgo biloba, Picrorhiza kurroa Royle Ex Benth, and Psoralea corylifolia L. have been highlighted for their potential in vitiligo treatment. Additionally, Psoralea corylifolia has been found to have pigmentor properties. Nigella sativa seed oil has also shown effectiveness in repigmentation of vitiligo patches. These findings suggest that plant-derived natural products can be used as anti-vitiligo agents and may provide a promising avenue for future research and development of herbal drugs for vitiligo treatment.
In-vitro and in-vivo models used for testing anti vitiligo activity?5 answersIn-vitro models used for testing anti-vitiligo activity include primary cell cultures of melanocytes, keratinocytes, or fibroblasts, as well as three-dimensional skin models and isolation of blood or skin mononuclear cells. These models allow for the investigation of differences between healthy and vitiligo cells and the testing of potential treatment options. In addition to studying unmodified patient's cells, in vitro approaches can also be adapted to generate melanocyte-specific silencing or overexpression of target genes. On the other hand, in-vivo models are used to assess the efficacy of potential treatments in animals before they can be tested in humans. These models involve the use of rodents such as mice or rats, and in some cases, higher animals such as monkeys. Overall, both in-vitro and in-vivo models are important tools for studying the mechanisms and potential treatments for vitiligo.
Why antioxidant treatment vitiligo effect is not good？?3 answersAntioxidant treatment for vitiligo may not have a good effect due to several reasons. Firstly, many published studies on the efficacy of vitamins and antioxidants in vitiligo are of poor quality, involving a small number of patients or lacking control groups and relevant clinical data. Secondly, measuring only a few parameters such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels may not accurately reflect the oxidative status in the study population, and the levels of antioxidants have not been analyzed and compared. Additionally, more investigations are needed to determine the effectiveness of other therapeutic approaches for vitiligo, as only L-phenylalanine, PGE2, and antioxidant agents have been well-documented. These factors contribute to the limited success of antioxidant treatment for vitiligo.