What is the specific bacteria which is transmitted with irregular immigration from Africa?4 answersThe specific bacteria transmitted with irregular immigration from Africa is Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This was identified in a study conducted by Martinez-Lirola et al.. The study analyzed Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from recently arrived migrants from the Horn of Africa and found an epidemiological cluster involving cases from Somalia. Further investigation revealed that these cases had shared the same migratory route and had spent time at a detention camp in Libya. The same strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was also identified in cases from Eritrea diagnosed in other European countries, suggesting potential en route transmission. The study suggests that this pan-susceptible strain caused at least 15 tuberculosis cases in Somalian and Eritrean migrants in four different European countries.
How to develop a PCR method to specify RagA, a virulence factor of Porphyromonas gingivalis?5 answersA PCR method to specify RagA, a virulence factor of Porphyromonas gingivalis, can be developed by using specific primers and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Several studies have focused on the detection and characterization of RagA in P. gingivalis isolates. Bunte et al. evaluated the prevalence of ragA in P. gingivalis isolates from periodontitis patients and healthy carriers using PCR and sequencing techniques. The study found that ragA was detected in 25% of the isolates from periodontitis patients but was undetected in isolates from healthy participants. This suggests that genotypes containing ragA may influence the virulence and progression of P. gingivalis-associated periodontitis. By using specific primers and PCR techniques, researchers can accurately detect and characterize the presence of RagA in P. gingivalis isolates, providing valuable information for understanding the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.
How are intestinal parasites transmit to humans?5 answersIntestinal parasites are transmitted to humans through various routes, including contaminated food, water, and materials contaminated with fecal matter. These parasites can be ingested when consuming food or water that has been contaminated with fecal material containing the parasites. Additionally, contact with soil, plants, or other surfaces contaminated with feces can also lead to transmission of these parasites. Some specific parasites, such as Giardia lamblia, can be transmitted through the consumption of contaminated vegetables and fruits. It is important to note that these parasites can cause non-specific intestinal symptoms and can be severe in some cases. Proper hygiene practices, such as washing hands before handling food and drinking clean water, can help prevent the transmission of intestinal parasites. Regular examination and treatment of individuals, especially mothers and children, can also help in early detection and prevention of these infections.
How do muscles communicate with organs?5 answersMuscles communicate with organs through the release of signaling molecules called myokines. These myokines are secreted by muscle tissue during exercise and act as mediators of inter-organ communication. One such myokine is irisin, which is primarily found in muscle and adipose tissue but has also been identified in other organs such as bone, heart, liver, and brain. The communication between muscle and organs is bidirectional, with organs also influencing muscle function. For example, bone and striated muscles have been found to influence several physiological processes in a significant manner. Additionally, muscle-borne signals have been shown to control brain functions, including learning, memory, and mood, and may mediate the beneficial actions of physical exercise in the brain. Overall, the communication between muscles and organs is essential for maintaining physiological function and can be influenced by factors such as exercise and muscle diseases.
How do bacteria occur inside and outside the body?3 answersBacteria occur both inside and outside the body. Inside the body, biofilms are formed by bacterial activities, leading to infections and chronic diseases. When the body is injured, bacteria from the outside can enter through wounds, causing infections and illness. The body fights against these incoming bacteria, which can harm both the incoming bacteria and the body's own helpful bacteria. Bacterial conversation plays a role in this fight, as bacteria use special molecules to communicate with each other. Additionally, the human body itself may produce bacteria, challenging the current paradigm of infectious disorders. Outside the body, bacteria can attach to host proteins on implanted materials or intravascular catheters, leading to persistent infections. Understanding the mechanisms of bacterial attachment and communication is important for developing strategies to prevent bacterial colonization and improve health.
Is extrapulmonary tuberculosis communicable?5 answers