What is the breakthrough technique in cell base therapy that improve the current genetics medicine the most? iPS Cell?3 answersThe breakthrough technique in cell-based therapy that has greatly improved the field of regenerative medicine is induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology. iPS cells are generated by reprogramming adult cells to a pluripotent state, similar to embryonic stem cells, through the forced expression of specific genes. This technology allows for the generation of patient-specific cell lines that can be used to model human diseases and potentially act as therapeutic agents. iPS cells have the ability to differentiate into various cell types, offering significant promise for cell-based therapies to restore tissues or organs damaged by injuries, degenerative diseases, aging, or cancer. The use of iPS cells in clinical therapy requires extensive documentation, optimization of manufacturing methods, and compliance with current good manufacturing practices to ensure patient safety. Additionally, advancements in next-generation DNA sequencing technology and bioinformatics are crucial for the success of iPS cell therapy, as whole-genome DNA sequencing of patient-derived iPS cell colonies can help avoid risks associated with spontaneously mutagenized cells.
What types of cells can be used as a source for ipsc?5 answersInduced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be derived from various cell sources. One such source is mesenchymal stromal cells (iMSCs). Another source is peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Fibroblasts have also been used as a starting cell source for reprogramming into iPSCs. Additionally, adult somatic cells can be reprogrammed to generate iPSCs using the stem cell transcription factors OCT3/4, SOX2, c-Myc, and KLF4. Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived vascular organoid cells have also been used as a cell source for creating 3D-scaffold-based human macrovascular models. These different cell sources offer advantages in terms of reprogramming efficiency, kinetics, and quality of iPSCs, and they can be used for various applications such as disease modeling, drug discovery, and regenerative medicine.
How to induce iPSC ?5 answersInducing iPSCs can be achieved through various methods. One approach involves using a non-viral inducing method that utilizes a combination of high-safety reprogramming factors, such as POU5F1, SOX2, GLIS1, KLF4, MYCL, and hsa-miR-302s, which are introduced into human somatic cells through episomal plasmids. Another method involves using an inducer comprising pluripotent microRNA and a small molecular compound combination, which can conveniently and efficiently induce the production of iPSCs while avoiding the risk of integration mutation. Additionally, a non-insertion episomal technique can be employed to establish iPSCs without the need for fetal bovine serum or a feeder, providing a safer and animal-free induction and culture technique. Furthermore, reprogramming cocktails consisting of transcription factors, miRNA, and small molecules have been used to enhance reprogramming efficiency and overcome limitations in source materials for iPSC generation. Finally, iPSC differentiation can be controlled by culturing on frozen sections of specific tissues/organs, allowing for the development of specific cell lineages.
Why is iPSCs the best model to study Ribosomal Protein mutations?3 answersiPSCs (induced pluripotent stem cells) are the best model to study Ribosomal Protein mutations because they can be generated from patient samples and differentiated into various cell types, including hematopoietic cells. This allows researchers to study the effects of Ribosomal Protein mutations on different cell types and understand the underlying mechanisms of ribosomopathies such as Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) and bone marrow failure syndromes. iPSCs derived from patients with Ribosomal Protein mutations can be compared to iPSCs from healthy individuals, providing a controlled experimental system to investigate the specific effects of these mutations. Additionally, iPSCs can be genetically manipulated to introduce or correct Ribosomal Protein mutations, allowing for further investigation of their role in disease development. The use of iPSCs as a model system for studying Ribosomal Protein mutations offers a valuable tool for understanding the pathophysiology of ribosomopathies and developing potential therapeutic strategies.
What is the expression of iPSCs established from gdT cells?4 answersThe expression of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) established from gdT cells was evaluated in one of the papers. The study successfully generated iPSCs from mature cytotoxic T cells specific for the melanoma epitope MART-1. These iPSCs were then cocultured with OP9/DLL1 cells to generate TCRβ+ CD4+ CD8+ double positive (DP) cells expressing a T cell receptor (TCR) specific for the MART-1 epitope. Stimulation of these DP cells with anti-CD3 antibody resulted in the generation of a large number of CD8+ T cells, with more than 90% of the resulting cells being specific for the MART-1 epitope. Stimulation of the CD8+ T cells with MART-1 antigen-presenting cells further demonstrated their specific reactivity, as evidenced by the secretion of IFNγ. This approach provides a method for cloning and expanding functional antigen-specific CD8+ T cells that could be applicable in cell-based therapy for cancer.
Can pluripotent stem cells generate neurons?4 answers