Answers from top 5 papers
26 Jul 2004-Physics Letters A
|In particular, we demonstrate how to distinguish between additive and multiplicative noise sources and to determine the structure of multiplicative and parametric noise sources of time-delayed human motor control systems.|
01 Mar 2002-IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
|It is shown that the time-delay phase process in Gaussian noise can be approximated by the noise-free phase plus a non-Gaussian phase noise.|
Open access•Journal Article•DOI
06 Mar 2013-Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
|Ideal time-frequency (TF) masks can reject noise and improve the recognition of speech-noise mixtures.|
18 Nov 2011
|At the same time, the proposed estimator maintains the quick noise tracking capability which is characteristic for the MMSE noise tracker, results in less noise power overestimation and is computationally less expensive.|
20 Jan 2000-Electronics Letters
|Using the noise period we can reliably estimate the time-varying noise characteristics.|
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What are some of the challenges in using temperature-based approaches?
5 answersTemperature-based approaches face several challenges. One challenge is the lack of required data at many weather stations, such as maximum and minimum air temperatures, which are necessary for accurate estimation of reference evapotranspiration (ET0). Another challenge is the slow response time of skin thermoreceptors and the latency of technology used to heat and cool the skin, which limits the perception of temperature changes over seconds. Additionally, accurately predicting temperature-based variables in fluctuating environments is difficult due to non-linearity in reaction norms, spatial heterogeneity in microclimate, and temporal variation in temperature. Furthermore, temperature-based control systems are vulnerable to physical-level attacks on analog temperature sensing components, which can induce safety risks and manipulate sensor measurements. These challenges highlight the need for improved data availability, faster response times, and enhanced security measures in temperature-based approaches.What are the pitch characteristics of children in speech recognition?
3 answersThe pitch characteristics of children in speech recognition have been studied in several papers. Children's speech is found to have high values of pitch, abnormal spectrum, and well-marked high-frequency. The pitch of children's speech is generally higher than that of adults. The increase in pitch of children's speech leads to an increase in the dynamic range and variances of higher order coefficients of Mel frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC) features. To address the pitch differences between adults and children, various techniques have been proposed, such as spectral smoothening, pitch reduction, and pitch-based spectrum normalization. These techniques aim to improve the performance of automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems trained on adults' speech for recognizing children's speech.How does external noise affect someone's memory?
5 answersExternal noise can have an impact on someone's memory. Studies have shown that increasing external noise does not affect the precision with which visual information can be recalled from working memory. However, meaningful external noise at low sound pressure levels can cause annoyance and decrease performance in mental tasks, such as short-term memory tasks. Additionally, external noise can lead to a shift in memory strategies employed by individuals. In the presence of noise, individuals with an external locus of control tend to decrease their use of higher-level semantic memory strategies and increase their use of lower-level perceptual strategies. Therefore, external noise can have negative effects on memory recall and the strategies used for memory tasks.What is the weather outside?
3 answersThe abstracts provided do not contain any information about the current weather conditions.How does inaccurate travel demand modeling forecasts affect transportation policy development or policy performance?
5 answersInaccurate travel demand modeling forecasts can have significant implications for transportation policy development and policy performance. These forecasts, generated by AI-based models, may introduce prediction biases and fairness issues, potentially exacerbating social inequalities in decision-making processes. Limited studies have focused on addressing the fairness issues of these models, highlighting the need for fairness-aware travel demand forecasting methodologies. Additionally, research has shown that measured traffic is often lower than forecasted volumes, with a mean absolute deviation of 17% from the forecast. Factors such as road volume, functional class, time span, and the use of travel models can influence forecast accuracy. Furthermore, the presence of infrequently large prediction errors can impact the performance of demand-responsive public transport systems, highlighting the importance of accurate demand predictions for effective operation.How did the invention of the sewing machine affect the clothing industry?
5 answersThe invention of sewing machines has had a significant impact on the clothing industry. These machines have improved production efficiency and quality by reducing friction and allowing smooth movement of cloth. They have also contributed to the stability and alignment of sewing machines, resulting in improved sewing quality and uniform tension in sewing threads. Sewing machines have been designed with features such as tension controllers and guide compression mechanisms to ensure even feeding speed and sewing of edging cloth, leading to consistent and firm edging. Additionally, sewing machines have introduced innovative sewing methods that enhance the formation stability of lock-stitch thread loops, improving the overall sewing quality. Furthermore, the integration of sewing machine data management systems has allowed for rapid adjustment and switching of sewing parameters, increasing production efficiency and adaptability to different fabric types.How can RTC and MPC control measures be used to improve the efficiency of sewer systems?
4 answersRTC and MPC control measures can be used to improve the efficiency of sewer systems. RTC, or real-time control, involves optimizing the operations of urban drainage systems (UDS) to reduce pollution to receiving waters. It can be implemented in both large and small networks, with potential reductions in combined sewer overflow volume ranging from 20% to 50%. On the other hand, MPC, or model predictive control, utilizes advanced control strategies to optimize the power consumption and effluent quality of water resource recovery facilities (WRRF). By utilizing the storage capacity from the sewer system, MPC can balance electricity costs and treatment quality, resulting in monetary savings of approximately 200 DKK per day. Both RTC and MPC strategies have been tested and compared against traditional control approaches, demonstrating their potential in improving the efficiency of sewer systems.How can geyser control be improved in residential homes?
5 answersGeyser control in residential homes can be improved by implementing smart technology that combines electricity efficiency and intelligence. This system analyzes how the human body interacts with different temperature levels of water and adjusts the water heating system accordingly. It also prevents undesired consequences such as overheating and damage to plumbing systems. Another approach is to use a PC-based measurement and control system connected to a single geyser, which allows for the experimental determination of the relationship between water and electrical consumption patterns for a large number of users. Additionally, the geyser phenomenon can be controlled using ultrasound emission, which can regulate the generation frequency and heat transfer of the geysering water column. By incorporating these advancements, geyser control can be made more efficient and convenient for residential use.What are the key challenges that acoustic textiles face in the coming years?
5 answersAcoustic textiles face several key challenges in the coming years. One challenge is to enhance their performance characteristics to be comparable to conventional acoustic materials such as glass fibre mats and polyurethane foams. Another challenge is to minimize the damage inflicted on the environment throughout the whole life cycle of the textile product. Additionally, the electrical performance of textile circuits woven or knitted within a textile matrix presents unusual constraints due to the textile manufacturing process and the properties of the fibers used. Signal attenuation and the ability to form reliable interconnections are major challenges for distributed sensors connected via an electronic fabric. Furthermore, the competitiveness of products such as cars and washing machines is being considered in terms of noise levels, making noise control an important challenge for acoustic textiles.What materials are used for making acoustic textiles?
5 answersTextile materials are widely used for making acoustic textiles. These materials include natural and synthetic fibers, recycled materials, and nanomaterials. Various manufacturing techniques are employed to produce textile products for acoustic insulation, such as fibrous mats, needlepunched nonwovens, and polymer composites made of nonwovens. The porosity of textile structures is crucial for sound absorption, and efforts have been made to produce thick textile structures with sufficient porosity. Additionally, the combination of different textile structures is used to counter low-frequency noises. The use of chemicals and fillers, as well as the development of hybrid absorbers, are also explored in the field of acoustic textiles. Overall, textile materials offer a cheaper, simpler, and effective alternative to conventional acoustic materials for noise control applications.What are relict reef?
3 answersRelict reefs are ancient coral reefs that were established during previous periods of higher sea levels and are now found at depths below the current sea level. These reefs provide valuable insights into past environmental conditions and can help us understand the effects of climate change on coral reef ecosystems. The abstracts provide information on different types of relict reefs. Macintyre et al.describe a relict reef off the west coast of Barbados that was established about 12,000 years ago and existed for no more than 2,000 years. Carroll et al.discuss the decline in water quality entering the Great Barrier Reef due to agricultural modifications and the Reef Water Quality Protection Plan aimed at improving water quality. Watanabe et al.present the development of an autonomous underwater vehicle called REEF for monitoring coastal sea areas. Choidescribes an artificial reef design that can be tailored to different topographies. Jamesdiscusses the use of photographs to document the changing relationship with Carysfort Reef in the context of reef restoration and social change.