Why patients with diabetes mellitus are more prone to develop CVDs?4 answersPatients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are more prone to develop cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) due to several factors. The prevalence of CVD is higher in DM patients compared to the general population, with a 2 to 6 times increased risk. DM is an independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF) and is frequently observed in patients with AF, further increasing their risk of stroke. Macrovascular and microvascular abnormalities in blood vessels, which are common complications of DM, contribute to the development of CVD. Additionally, the presence of DM reduces life expectancy and increases the risk of dying from coronary heart disease. The severity of CVD in DM patients can be measured using the Gensini score, which shows a significant positive association with glycated hemoglobin levels. Overall, the prothrombotic and inflammatory state of DM patients, along with the metabolic complications and vascular abnormalities associated with the disease, contribute to their increased susceptibility to CVDs.
How does diabetes affect the risk of stroke?5 answersDiabetes is associated with an increased risk of stroke, with people with diabetes having a 1.5-2 times higher risk compared to those without diabetes. The risk of stroke may differ according to sex, with a greater risk observed among women. Mechanisms associated with diabetes that lead to stroke include large artery atherosclerosis, cerebral small vessel disease, and cardiac embolism. Hyperglycemia also confers an increased risk for worse outcomes in people with acute ischemic stroke. Additionally, people with diabetes may have poorer post-stroke outcomes and a higher risk of stroke recurrence. Appropriate management of diabetes and other vascular risk factors can improve stroke outcomes and reduce the risk of recurrent stroke. Screening for diabetes following a stroke is recommended, and certain diabetes medications have demonstrated protection against stroke. Neurologists play a role in managing modifiable risk factors for stroke but are less involved in the direct management of diabetes.
Is metformin associated with a reduced risk of death in people with no type 2 diabetes?4 answersMetformin is not associated with a reduced risk of death in people with no type 2 diabetes. The studies focused on individuals with type 2 diabetes and examined the effects of metformin on various outcomes such as dementia, ischemic stroke, pneumonia, and cardiovascular events. The results consistently showed that metformin use was associated with lower risks of these specific conditions in individuals with type 2 diabetes. However, there were no studies included in the provided abstracts that specifically investigated the association between metformin use and the risk of death in people without type 2 diabetes. Therefore, based on the available information, there is no evidence to suggest that metformin reduces the risk of death in individuals without type 2 diabetes.
What is the effect of cannabis on myocardial infarction?5 answersCannabis has been found to have an effect on myocardial infarction (MI) by increasing vascular tone and sympathetic hormone secretion, which can lead to vasospasms in the coronary artery. This can potentially precipitate MI in individuals with underlying risk factors or cardiac anomalies. Cannabis consumption, particularly the synthetic component, has been associated with severe adverse effects, including diffuse coronary vasospasm and cardiac arrest. It has also been reported as a risk factor for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and can trigger ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Healthcare professionals should consider cannabis consumption as a possible cause of MI, especially in young patients with a susceptible social profile and educate patients about this emerging public health issue. The increasing use of cannabis worldwide necessitates awareness of its multifaceted effects on various organ systems, including the cardiovascular system.
What are the effects of diabetes on cancer survival?5 answersDiabetes has been found to have negative effects on cancer survival. In patients with colorectal and pancreatic cancer, pre-existing type 2 diabetes was associated with increased incidence of cachexia, higher weight loss, and reduced survival probability. Similarly, in various types of cancer including lung, digestive tract, leukemia, breast, and liver cancer, diabetes was associated with shorter overall survival. However, in breast cancer patients, the presence of diabetes did not significantly affect survival rates. On the other hand, in endometrial cancer patients, diabetes was associated with worse cancer-specific survival, progression or recurrence-free survival, and overall survival. These findings suggest that diabetes can have varying effects on cancer survival depending on the type of cancer.
How are cardiovascular diseases implicated in T2DM mortality?5 answersCardiovascular diseases are implicated in the mortality of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM patients have a higher mortality rate compared to the general population, mainly due to excess mortality from coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. The risk of death from cardiovascular diseases is higher among patients with early onset diabetes. In patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF), cardiovascular mortality is significantly higher than in the general population. Left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, and arterial atheroma contribute to the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in ESRF patients. Specific risk factors related to chronic renal failure and its treatment, such as hydroelectrolytic disorders, anemia, and elevated thrombogenesis factors, also contribute to the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients. Epigenetic modifications, specifically DNA methylation, play a role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases in diabetes. Monitoring specific vibrational spectral characteristics can predict mortality in cardiovascular diseases.