What are the issues of policy, planning, infrastructure and services regarding transportation problems?5 answersTransportation problems present various issues in policy, planning, infrastructure, and services. The complexity of congestion is influenced by technical factors such as poor infrastructure design and socio-economic factors like economic development trends and transportation policies. Public regulation of transport services and infrastructure is still in its early stages, with command and control practices dominating and liberalization processes hindered by capture phenomena. Designing and developing new infrastructure-intensive public transportation services require innovative practices and efficient management to mitigate risks and ensure success. Increasing transport activity contributes to traffic fatalities, congestion, air pollution, and petroleum dependence, emphasizing the need for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and exploring synergies and co-benefits. National governments play a crucial role in regulating and governing transport infrastructure and operations, with limited research on their responsibilities. The establishment of special interest groups aims to promote research on regional and national transport planning and policy to improve economic, environmental, and social aspects globally.
How does estimation of travel demand modeling outcomes affect transportation policy practices or decision-making process?5 answersEstimation of travel demand modeling outcomes has a significant impact on transportation policy practices and the decision-making process. Traditional methods like Home Interview Survey (HIS) are costly, time-consuming, and suffer from sample bias and data coding errors. Therefore, there is a need for more accurate and efficient tools and methods. Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning-based travel demand forecasting models have been adopted to generate highly accurate predictions. However, these models may produce prediction biases and raise fairness issues, potentially exacerbating social inequalities. To address this, a novel methodology has been proposed to develop fairness-aware travel demand forecasting models that simultaneously account for prediction accuracy and fairness. Additionally, the integration of big data sources, such as floating car data (FCD), with traditional data allows for the estimation of travel demand models and the forecasting of mobility patterns. These advancements in travel demand estimation provide transportation professionals with decision-support tools to achieve fair and accurate travel demand forecasting.
How is policy diffusion related to transport?4 answersPolicy diffusion in transport refers to the process of transferring policies, concepts, and tools related to sustainable transport planning from one region to another. It involves the exchange of knowledge and the adoption of successful policies in different contexts. The transfer of policies can occur both within a country and between countries, often driven by the need to address similar challenges or competition for resources. The diffusion of policies in transport is influenced by factors such as the motivations of actors, the direction and degree of transfer, and the barriers faced during the process. Understanding the dynamics of policy diffusion is crucial for improving transportation planning and achieving more sustainable outcomes.
How can transport be used to promote policy diffusion?5 answersTransport can be used to promote policy diffusion by harnessing the potential synergetic relationships between different policy measures. By integrating various policies and coordinating their implementation, the effectiveness and efficiency of policy interventions can be significantly increased. Additionally, transport policy can serve as a means to spread and diffuse policies across different jurisdictions and institutional contexts. The spreading of policy can occur through the involvement of similar agents and processes in both policy diffusion and transport policy. Furthermore, the development of user-centric policy measures in the transport sector can encourage the implementation of sustainable freight transport practices, thereby promoting the diffusion of sustainable policies in the transportation domain. Overall, transport plays a crucial role in promoting policy diffusion by facilitating the integration of policies, enabling the spread of policies across different contexts, and encouraging the adoption of sustainable practices.
How has previous transportation studies predicted induced travel demand and supply in the United States?5 answersPrevious transportation studies have predicted induced travel demand and supply in the United States using various methodologies. Plakandaras et al. found that machine learning models, specifically Support Vector Regression, produced more accurate out-of-sample forecasts of transportation demand compared to classical econometric models. Zhang et al. analyzed the impact of transportation investment on economic development and confirmed the existence of induced demand and induced supply, with transportation investment having a relatively small positive effect on economic development. Melo et al. analyzed the effects of road transportation investment on economic output and induced travel demand, finding that investment in road capacity increases economic growth while inducing additional growth in traffic. Hymel et al. measured the impacts of driving costs on congestion and confirmed the existence of induced demand, with the elasticities of increasing overall accessibility and increasing urban capacity totaling about 0.16.
How can the PQRST model be used to improve transportation planning?5 answersThe PQRST model can be used to improve transportation planning by optimizing train operation plans and maximizing revenue while minimizing passenger costs. By synthesizing revenue management and train operation planning, an integrated model can be developed to dynamically optimize train frequencies, stopping patterns, and seat allocation. This model has been applied to the Chengdu-Chongqing high-speed rail line, resulting in increased total profit and reduced passengers' waiting time. Additionally, the PQRST model can be used to establish optimal planning models for traffic networks, such as selecting the maximum service traffic volume or minimizing traffic resistance. By utilizing the PQRST model, transportation efficiency can be maximized by utilizing backhauls and improving collaboration methods.