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How does rainfall affect the transmission of malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa? 

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Rainfall has a significant impact on the transmission of malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa. High-quality measurements from field campaigns in the region have shown that monthly maximum rainfall should not exceed certain thresholds for seasonal malaria transmission to occur. In west Central Africa, the maximum rainfall should not exceed 600 mm, while in the Sahel, Guinea Savannah, and East Africa, it should not exceed 400 mm . Fluctuations in rainfall provide suitable breeding sites for mosquitoes, which are the vectors for malaria transmission. However, areas with markedly seasonal rainfall, such as the Sahel and East Africa, experience a lag in malaria transmission onset compared to rainfall seasonality, while in other areas, malaria transmission is year-round . The relationship between rainfall and malaria transmission is complex and influenced by factors such as temperature and topography .

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The paper states that climatic elements such as precipitation (rainfall) are major drivers of malaria occurrence in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, it does not specifically explain how rainfall affects the transmission of malaria in the region.
Rainfall seasonality is significantly associated with malaria seasonality in most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, except in west Central Africa. Monthly maximum rainfall for seasonal malaria transmission should not exceed 600 mm in west Central Africa, and 400 mm in the Sahel, Guinea Savannah, and East Africa.
Rainfall affects the transmission of malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa by providing suitable breeding sites for mosquitoes. However, a high amount of rainfall does not have a significant effect on malaria transmission.
Rainfall is significantly associated with malaria seasonality in Sub-Saharan Africa, except in west Central Africa. Monthly maximum rainfall for seasonal malaria transmission does not exceed 600mm in west Central Africa, Sahel, Guinea Savannah, and East Africa.
Rainfall is found to be significantly associated with malaria seasonality in Sub-Saharan Africa, except in west Central Africa. The study mentions that seasonal malaria transmission onset lags behind rainfall in areas with markedly seasonal rainfall, such as the Sahel and East Africa.

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