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How does rainfall and temperature affect malaria in africa? 


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Rainfall and temperature have a significant impact on malaria transmission in Africa. Fluctuations in temperature can either lower or speed up the rate of malaria transmission. Additionally, rainfall plays a role in the transmission of malaria by providing breeding sites for mosquitoes. However, a high amount of rainfall does not have a significant effect on malaria transmission. Studies have shown that seasonal malaria transmission occurs within a temperature range of 15°C–40°C and is sustained if the average temperature is well above 15°C or below 40°C . Monthly maximum rainfall for seasonal malaria transmission should not exceed 600 mm in certain regions of Africa . Rainfall and temperature seasonality are significantly associated with malaria seasonality in most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, except in west Central Africa . In areas with significant elevations, such as East Africa, topography also influences the relationship between climate variables and malaria seasonality .

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The provided paper is about the impact of rainfall and temperature on malaria dynamics in the KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. However, the specific impact of rainfall and temperature on malaria in Africa is not mentioned in the paper.
Rainfall and temperature seasonality are important drivers of malaria seasonality in most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, except in west Central Africa. The study found that a temperature window of 15-40 degrees Celsius is required for seasonal malaria transmission, and monthly maximum rainfall should not exceed 600 mm in west Central Africa and 400 mm in other regions.
Rainfall and temperature seasonality were found to be significantly associated with malaria seasonality in Sub-Saharan Africa, except in west Central Africa. The study focuses on the impact of climate on malaria transmission seasonality in the region.
Rainfall and temperature affect the transmission of malaria in Africa. Fluctuations in temperature can lower or speed up the rate of transmission, while rainfall provides breeding sites for mosquitoes. However, a high amount of rainfall does not have a significant effect on malaria transmission.
Rainfall and temperature seasonality were found to be significantly associated with malaria seasonality in Sub-Saharan Africa, except in west Central Africa. The study did not provide specific details on how rainfall and temperature affect malaria transmission.

Related Questions

What affects weather prediction in africa?5 answersWeather prediction in Africa is influenced by various factors. The accuracy of forecasts is impacted by the representation of convection in weather models. Utilizing convection-permitting models can enhance the intensity and timing of precipitation systems, particularly crucial in regions like West Africa where organized convection forms mesoscale convective systems. The spatiotemporal skill of short-term rainfall forecasts across Africa is evaluated using numerical weather models, such as the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Global Forecast System (NCEP-GFS). Additionally, a multimodel superensemble technique has been developed to improve the predictability of weather over various African regions, showing superior forecasts compared to individual models. These factors collectively play a significant role in shaping the accuracy and reliability of weather predictions in Africa.
How does climate change impact malaria?5 answersClimate change significantly impacts malaria transmission dynamics. Studies show that rising temperatures and extreme precipitation due to anthropogenic climate change have increased the burden of childhood malaria in sub-Saharan Africa since 1901, with an average of 84 excess cases per 100,000 children by 2014. Even in areas with intensive malaria control interventions, climatic factors play a crucial role in driving malaria outbreaks, as seen in western Kenya from 2008-2019. The distribution of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes is highly sensitive to climate, with rainfall affecting the availability of breeding sites and temperature influencing their development period. Climate variability, including precipitation and temperature, is key in predicting malaria incidence in Sub-Saharan Africa, emphasizing the need for better models to monitor and limit disease outbreaks. The global phenomenon of climate change, exacerbated by human activities, has led to various environmental changes that directly or indirectly affect the spread of malaria, highlighting the intricate relationship between climate change and public health.
How does climate change affect the incidence of malaria?4 answersClimate change affects the incidence of malaria by influencing temperature and rainfall patterns. Fluctuations in temperature can either lower or speed up the transmission rate of malaria, while rainfall provides breeding sites for mosquitoes. Studies have shown a positive correlation between malaria transmission and temperature and rainfall networks. Future temperature increases due to climate change are projected to have adverse effects on malaria infection rates, particularly in Africa. Climate variability, even in areas with intensive malaria control interventions, still plays a significant role in driving malaria incidence. Human-caused climate change has been found to increase the overall prevalence of childhood malaria across sub-Saharan Africa since 1901. Climate conditions, such as increased temperature and rainfall intensity, can modulate malaria transmission by affecting the reproductive cycle of the parasite and the development of mosquito populations.
How do temperatures affect malaria in africa?4 answersTemperatures have a significant impact on malaria transmission in Africa. Fluctuations in temperature can either lower or speed up the rate of malaria transmission. Higher temperatures generally increase the transmission of malaria, while lower temperatures can slow it down. The study by Li and Managi predicts that as temperatures continue to rise due to greenhouse gas emissions, the global malaria infection rates will increase, with Africa being the most affected region. Yamba's research shows that seasonal malaria transmission occurs within a temperature range of 15°C–40°C, and transmission is sustained if the average temperature is well above 15°C or below 40°C. The study by Diouf et al. also highlights the impact of warm temperatures on malaria transmission in West Africa, particularly during wet years. Overall, higher temperatures contribute to the spread and intensity of malaria in Africa.
How will climate change affect malaria distribution?5 answersClimate change is expected to have significant impacts on the distribution of malaria. Studies suggest that as global temperatures increase and weather conditions change, the geographic range of malaria may expand, potentially threatening previously unexposed areas. The distribution of malaria is closely linked to the distribution and abundance of mosquito vectors, which are influenced by environmental factors such as temperature, rainfall, and humidity. Models project that under different climate scenarios, the potential range of malaria vectors may increase, leading to higher prevalence and population density of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes. The magnitude of change in malaria prevalence is predicted to be higher in the later part of the 21st century under high emission scenarios, driven by increasing temperature and fluctuating rainfall patterns. These changes may result in a significant increase in malaria burden, particularly in regions such as Sahel and Sudan savannas, Humid forest, and Derived savanna.
What are the weather conditions of West Africa?4 answersWest Africa experiences a division of the year into two well-defined seasons: the wet and the dry. The wet season occurs from April to September and is characterized by rainfall brought by the south-west monsoon winds. The dry season, known as the Harmattan, occurs from October to March and is characterized by dry and dusty conditions, with temperatures falling rapidly at night. The region also experiences the Intertropical Discontinuity (ITD), which influences moist convection and rainfall patterns. NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) measurements have shown that the ITD exhibits seasonal variations and diurnal-scale variations, with increased instability and thunderstorm propagation at night. The Dynamics–Aerosol–Chemistry–Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project has further studied the large-scale setting and weather systems in the region, including the monsoon onset and the influence of Pacific La Nina, Atlantic El Nino, and warm eastern Mediterranean conditions on precipitation. Climate change projections indicate that future climate in West Africa will be characterized by more extreme temperatures and precipitation, with potential socioeconomic implications.

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