Isolation of fungi disease from pepper4 answersBlack pepper and chili pepper plants have been found to be susceptible to fungal pathogens causing diseases. In peninsular Malaysia, Fusarium and Diaporthe species were isolated from black pepper plants showing yellowish to brownish lesions on leaves and blackish lesions on berries. In the southern region of Guanajuato, Mexico, antagonistic fungi were isolated from soil samples and showed potential in inhibiting the growth of Rhizoctonia spp., Fusarium spp., and Phytophthora spp.. In Yiyang, Hunan province of China, Athelia rolfsii was identified as the causative pathogen of a disease affecting pepper plants, causing wilting and stem girdling. In India, Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, and A. niger were found to contaminate commercially available chili peppers, with some samples testing positive for aflatoxin production. In Puerto Rico, Beauveria bassiana, Beauveria caledonica, Paecilomyces fumosorosea, and Paecilomyces lilacinum were isolated from coffee borer beetles and banana weevils, and all these fungal species were found to be pathogenic to pepper weevils.
How do climate change impact plant pathogens ?4 answersClimate change has significant impacts on plant pathogens. It alters the life cycle of pathogens, affects the expression of host resistance, and influences disease epidemiology and severity of outbreaks. Climate change can also lead to the development of new races, changes in virulence, and shifts in the geographical distribution of pathogens. Rising global temperatures and elevated atmospheric CO2 levels affect plant viral diseases by altering plant biochemistry, plant defense responses, and vector biology. Pathogen range can shift, increasing the spread of plant diseases in new areas. Climate change has the potential to alter host-pathogen interactions and ultimately impact the development of disease epidemics. Understanding these impacts is crucial for effective monitoring and management of plant diseases under future climate scenarios to ensure long-term food security and sustainability.
Flower attacking pathogens?5 answersFlower attacking pathogens are a diverse group of fungi that infect host flowers for ecological benefits. They can be classified into three major groups based on their infection strategies and life history attributes. Calotropis procera flower extracts have shown antibacterial activity against various human pathogens, including Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Plants defend themselves against phytopathogenic fungi through physiological and biochemical processes, similar to how pathogens parasitize plants. Flowers of medicinal plants, such as Pedalium murex, have been found to possess antimicrobial properties, with ethanol flower extract showing the highest antibacterial activity. Plants also exhibit immune responses against pathogenic attacks, secreting secretome proteins and recognizing microbial elicitors through pattern recognition receptors (PRR).
What vitamins are needed for a healthy Capsicum frutescens plant?3 answersCapsicum frutescens, also known as chili pepper, requires certain vitamins for healthy growth. One important vitamin is vitamin C, which is found in high amounts in chili peppers and is known for its antioxidant properties. Another vitamin that is beneficial for Capsicum frutescens plants is provitamin A, also known as carotene. Red chilis, in particular, contain high amounts of carotene. These vitamins contribute to the nutritional value of the plant and may also play a role in protecting the plant from certain diseases or stressors.
Which pathogens can be associated with fresh produce and food-borne illnesses?5 answersFresh produce can be associated with various pathogens that can cause foodborne illnesses. These include bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and Bacillus cereus. Other pathogens include Cryptosporidium, Norovirus, Shigella, and parasites. These pathogens can contaminate fresh produce at different points in the supply chain, from farm to fork. The contamination can occur through sources such as agricultural soil, irrigation water, and poor agricultural practices. The internalization of pathogens within the tissue of the plant and the attachment of pathogens to the plant surface can also contribute to contamination. The consumption of contaminated fresh produce can pose significant food safety hazards. Therefore, it is important to implement interventions to minimize preharvest contamination and ensure the safety of fresh produce.
What are the effects of cayenne pepper deterioration on the quality of the pepper?2 answersThe deterioration of cayenne pepper can have several effects on its quality. Firstly, the weight of the pepper increases with the duration of storage, leading to weight loss. Secondly, the pH of the pepper decreases during storage, indicating a change in its acidity. Additionally, the color of the pepper changes, with an increase in the number of colored peppers observed during storage. Furthermore, the use of packaging can help reduce weight loss and maintain the physical quality of the pepper. Lastly, exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields can affect the pH and physical endurance of green chili peppers.