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How to calculate energy costed when walking? 

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The energy cost of walking can be calculated using various methods. One approach is to use a unified model that estimates metabolic cost based on walking mechanics, step lengths, and gait postures . Another method involves establishing steady state conditions during walking trials and calculating energy cost based on oxygen consumption and walking speed . Additionally, energy expenditure during walking can be measured under different oxygen concentrations to determine circulatory and respiratory costs . Another approach is to use mathematically based methods to identify steady state conditions during energy cost assessments . Finally, the Physiological Cost Index (PCI) proposed by MacGregor can be used to estimate energy expenditure by considering heart rate and walking speed . These methods provide valuable insights into the energy cost of walking and can be used in various research and clinical settings.

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The paper provides a method to estimate energy expenditure during walking using MacGregor's equation, which considers heart rate and walking speed over varying distances.
The paper presents a simple model that uses walking mechanics to estimate the metabolic cost of walking. It suggests that the overall energetic cost can be approximated by the sum of four costs: swing and torso dynamics, center of mass velocity redirection, ground clearance, and body weight support. The first three costs are expressed as mechanical work and need to be scaled by muscle efficiency to be converted to metabolic input.
The paper provides two mathematically based approaches for calculating the energy cost of walking. One method uses a mathematically defined threshold for steady state, while the other method relies on the calculation of the correlation coefficient to define steady state data. Both methods can be used interchangeably to calculate the energy cost of walking.
The paper presents a new method for calculating energy cost of walking that automatically applies a mathematically defined threshold for steady state within a walking trial and removes non-steady state events.
The paper provides a method to calculate energy costs during walking by comparing the change in heart rate and ventilation with the change in energy expenditure at different oxygen concentrations.

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