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How to control pH in microfluidic devices? 

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pH control in microfluidic devices can be achieved through various methods. One approach is to generate controlled quantities of reagents electrochemically in microdroplets confined within a microfluidic channel . Another method involves utilizing the ion concentration polarization (ICP) phenomenon to create a well-defined pH gradient in a microchannel by adjusting the proton mass transportation . Additionally, a microfluidic mixer with an integrated ion-sensitive transistor (ISFET) can be used to adjust the pH of a mixed solution by controlling the flow rates of acid and base solutions . Another technique involves reacting biofluid samples with a polymer buffering material during transfer to a sensing element, which causes protonation or deprotonation of the sample based on the pH and functional groups in the buffering material . Real-time pH monitoring and adjustment can also be achieved in microfluidic enzymatic reactors using optical pH sensors and fluidic inputs .

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The paper demonstrates real-time pH monitoring in a microfluidic side-entry reactor (μSER) and implements fluidic inputs along the reaction channel to adjust the pH of the reaction.
The paper discusses devices and methods for tuning biofluid sample pH in order to enable more accurate analyte concentration measurements with pH-sensitive biosensors. It does not specifically mention microfluidic devices or provide details on how to control pH in them.
The paper discusses the design of a microfluidic mixer with integrated ion-sensitive transistor (ISFET) for pH measurements. It mentions that the valves in the microfluidic device allow adjustment of the flow rate of each solution, which enables control of the pH value of the mixed solution. However, it does not provide specific details on how to control pH in microfluidic devices.
The paper describes a method for electrochemical pH regulation in microdroplets generated in a microfluidic device by driving water electrolysis within the droplets using floor-patterned microelectrodes.
The paper discusses strategies for controlling pH in microfluidic devices using nanoscale electrokinetics, such as generating a well-defined pH gradient and using pH-responsive hydrogels as nanojunctions.

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