What are additive manufactured stainless steels for hydrogen applications?3 answersAdditive manufactured stainless steels for hydrogen applications are a novel approach to fabricate complex nuclear components. These steels are produced using techniques such as selective laser melting (SLM) and laser powder-bed fusion (LPBF). They offer advantages such as the ability to create complex geometries and excellent mechanical properties comparable to or exceeding that of conventional austenitic stainless steels. However, the microstructures of these steels differ from conventionally processed materials, with features such as increased ferrite content and dislocation densities, as well as chemical inhomogeneity. These microstructural differences can affect hydrogen transport and trapping in the materials. Studies have shown that hydrogen permeability remains relatively unchanged in additive manufactured stainless steels, but they exhibit greater hydrogen isotope trapping compared to conventional steels. The presence of delta ferrite and chemical inhomogeneity can lead to severe hydrogen-assisted failure in conventionally processed materials, while additive manufactured steels with a fully austenitic structure and homogeneous elemental distribution show enhanced strength without promoting harmful hydrogen embrittlement effects.
What are the latest developments in additive manufacturing?5 answersAdditive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, has seen several recent developments. One area of focus is the 3D printing of polymer composites with conductive properties, which involves using different conductive fillers. Another area of advancement is in the three most commonly used additive manufacturing technologies with polymeric materials: material extrusion, vat photopolymerization, and powder bed fusion. Additionally, additive manufacturing has been applied in various sectors, including tissue engineering, where it has been used to make biomaterials, organs, and drugs. In the field of nuclear reactors, additive manufacturing techniques have been explored, with a focus on material properties, experiments, numerical simulations, and standards. Finally, additive manufacturing has played a significant role in fabricating orthopedic implants, particularly hip implants, using biomaterials.
What are the recent developments in additive manufacturing?5 answersRecent developments in additive manufacturing include advancements in 3D printing of polymer composites with conductive properties. Innovations have been made in material extrusion, vat photopolymerization, and powder bed fusion techniques. Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) has emerged as a feasible alternative for producing medium-to-large-scale metallic components. The integration of machine learning algorithms at various stages of the additive manufacturing process has been discussed, including design, parameter optimization, anomaly detection, and post-processing. Additive manufacturing has revolutionized the biomedical field, enabling the production of patient-specific products, medical instruments, tissue regeneration, and implants.
What is additive manufacturing?5 answersAdditive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, is a process where materials are added layer by layer to create a three-dimensional object. It is a unique fabrication technique that differs from traditional manufacturing methods. Additive manufacturing is used in various industries such as aerospace, automobile, consumer products, biomedical, and food industries. The process is computer-controlled, and the material deposition is based on a digital solid model. Different types of additive manufacturing processes exist, including vat photopolymerization, material jetting, powder bed fusion, directed energy deposition, material extrusion, binder jetting, and sheet lamination. Additive manufacturing allows for the use of different materials such as metal, polymer, glass, ceramic, and composite materials. It offers advantages such as precise design, customization, and the ability to create complex shapes and geometric features.
Can additive manufacturing make two metals together?5 answersAdditive manufacturing can be used to create joints between two different metallic materials, with the porosity of the joint being less than 0.1 percent by volume. Metals can also be deposited on components made by 3D printing with a water-soluble polymer, providing a low-cost alternative to 3D printing directly using metal. An example method for additive manufacturing of metals involves spreading a build material in layers and using radiated energy to cause a consolidating transformation of the build material. Additive manufacturing processes can be used to deposit metallic conductors as contiguous metal traces, even when dielectric materials are present. Overall, additive manufacturing has the potential to join two metals together and create complex metal components using various techniques and materials.
How much does hydrogen embrittlement cost the oil industry?1 answersHydrogen embrittlement can have significant costs for the oil industry. The inhibition of hydrogen embrittlement in steel materials can be achieved through various methods, such as measuring and controlling the oscillation frequency of concrete columns. Additionally, the cost of hydrogen production using different technologies can vary. For example, the cost of hydrogen production through electrolysis is considered expensive, while thermo-electrochemical methods utilizing heat sources can lower the cost. Furthermore, the development of low-cost hydrogen fueling stations is crucial to support the market for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs). The dominant hydrogen production technology, steam methane reforming, also incurs costs due to the production of CO2. Overall, the cost of hydrogen embrittlement and hydrogen production in the oil industry depends on various factors, including the specific technology and methods employed.