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What are alternatives to mitochondria? 


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Mitochondria have been found to have alternative functions within the cell. These include intracellular Ca2+ regulation, thermogenesis, control of apoptosis, generation of reactive oxygen species, and triggering of necrotic cell death under oxidative stress conditions . Mitochondria also participate in cellular processes such as heme and steroid syntheses, production and transmission of a transmembrane potential, detoxication, and heat production . Additionally, mitochondria are involved in cellular degradation processes, including proteasomal and autophagic degradation, and the activity of proteases . Autophagy, specifically mitophagy, plays a central role in the degradation of mitochondria, with the mitochondrial permeability transition potentially initiating the process in certain circumstances . Overall, these alternative functions highlight the importance of mitochondria in maintaining cellular homeostasis and their unique contributions to various cellular processes.

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The text does not provide information about alternatives to mitochondria.
The alternative functions of mitochondria include participation in apoptosis and cellular proliferation, regulation of the cellular redox state, heme and steroid syntheses, and detoxication.
Alternative functions of mitochondria include intracellular Ca2+ regulation, thermogenesis, control of apoptosis, and generation of reactive oxygen species.
Alternative functions of mitochondria include intracellular Ca2+ regulation, thermogenesis, control of apoptosis, and generation of reactive oxygen species.
The paper discusses an alternative mitochondrial quality control mechanism mediated by extracellular release.

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