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What are the effects of active and passive forest management on amphibian populations? 

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Active forest management, such as clear-cutting and intensive pine plantation operations, can have significant impacts on amphibian populations. Clear-cut scenarios result in dramatic reductions in amphibian biomass, affecting trophic interactions and energy transfer. Pine plantations with high pine density lead to increased desiccation rates and mortality among amphibians due to lower soil moisture levels, especially during low rainfall periods. In contrast, passive forest management practices, like retaining 75% of canopy trees, can benefit certain amphibian species like spotted salamanders, which only deposited eggs in areas with higher tree retention. Therefore, the choice between active and passive forest management techniques can have species-specific effects on amphibian populations, highlighting the importance of considering habitat characteristics and conservation priorities.

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Active forest management, such as clear-cutting, can impact amphibian egg deposition differently based on species. Passive management, like retaining 75% of canopy trees, benefits spotted salamanders and mountain chorus frogs.
Active forest management negatively impacts long-toed salamander populations, especially in isolated areas, while Columbia spotted frog populations benefit from burn extent in both protected and managed forests.
Active forest management, like clear-cutting, reduces amphibian populations by up to 50%, while passive management, such as partial cuts, may benefit them by enhancing microclimates and foraging efficiency.
Active forest management practices like intensive pine plantations increase amphibian desiccation and mortality due to reduced soil moisture, while passive management in natural forests provides better groundcover and survival conditions.
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Related Questions

How does active forest management impact amphibian populations and habitat?5 answersActive forest management practices, such as clearcutting and intensive pine plantation operations, significantly impact amphibian populations and habitats. These practices lead to alterations in forest ecosystems, affecting groundcover microhabitats, soil moisture levels, and canopy cover, which are crucial for amphibian survival. Studies show that clearcutting can result in increased desiccation rates for amphibians, especially newly metamorphosed individuals, due to habitat disturbance and removal of canopy cover. However, the impact of forest management varies depending on the specific practices employed. While some amphibian species may exhibit preferences for certain habitats within managed forests, the overall consensus is that active forest management can lead to reduced amphibian biomass, changes in trophic interactions, and potential long-term consequences on population dynamics and habitat quality.
What are the long-term effects of passive forest management on the survival and reproduction of amphibian species?5 answersPassive forest management practices, such as prescribed burns and fire surrogates, can have varying effects on amphibian survival and reproduction. Studies show that amphibian species associated with longleaf pine forests exhibit elevated species richness in plots managed with herbicide and burn, hardwood thinning, and hardwood thinning plus prescribed fire, compared to unmanaged reference plots. Additionally, the retention of canopy trees in silvicultural treatments influences egg deposition patterns by amphibians, with different species showing preferences for varying levels of tree retention. These findings suggest that passive forest management strategies can impact the survival and reproduction of amphibian species, highlighting the importance of considering species-specific responses to different management practices for long-term conservation efforts.
Amphibian habitat preferences forest5 answersAmphibians show preferences for forest habitats. Studies have found that amphibian species richness and composition are associated with the type and number of vegetation types in breeding habitats, with most species preferring breeding habitats in forested areas. Additionally, the quality of terrestrial habitat in forests, such as leaf litter depth, understory vegetation density, and availability of cover objects, influences the presence and abundance of amphibians. Forest removal has been shown to negatively impact amphibians, with some species emigrating in greater numbers through forest controls compared to harvested areas. Conservation efforts should focus on preserving forest habitat adjacent to reproduction sites to promote the persistence of amphibian populations. Vegetational factors have been identified as important for amphibians, with studies showing significant differences in ecological characteristics between used and unused sites, with vegetation being the most important factor.
Amphibians rate of survival in forests5 answersAmphibian survival in forests varies depending on the specific forest management practices and the region. Studies have shown that clearcutting forests for timber harvesting can lead to declines in amphibian abundance and diversity, with both juvenile and adult salamanders experiencing lower survival rates in clearcuts compared to unharvested controls. However, partial harvesting, with intact forest around breeding ponds, can be compatible with the survival of adult salamanders. Additionally, the prevalence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) can also impact amphibian survival, with higher infection rates found in cloud forests with higher tree diversity and elevation. The age of the forest can also play a role, as certain amphibian species are more abundant in older forests due to specific microclimatic and microhabitat conditions. Overall, maintaining intact forest areas and implementing best management practices can help support amphibian survival in forests.
What is the impact of habitat fragmentation on amphibian?5 answersHabitat fragmentation has a significant impact on amphibians. It can lead to habitat loss and reduced connectivity, which in turn can result in local extirpations and population declines. Fragmentation can alter species distributions and reduce diversity at multiple scales. Decreased connectivity and habitat loss can reduce effective population size and genetic diversity, limiting the ability of amphibians to adapt to environmental change. In arid environments, the loss of environmental features that allow for movement between water sources can be particularly detrimental for amphibians. Fragmentation can also affect genetic diversity and infection dynamics in amphibians, potentially increasing susceptibility to parasites. Overall, habitat fragmentation poses a significant threat to amphibian populations and highlights the need for conservation strategies that prioritize habitat connectivity and preservation.
What is the importance of amphibians for the ecosystem?5 answersAmphibians are vital for the proper functioning of ecosystems. They play a dual role as both prey and predators, and act as a food source for higher chordates like snakes, birds, and mammals. Amphibians also contribute to the terrestrial-aquatic linkages and biomasses in their ecosystems. They provide provisioning services by serving as a food source for human societies, especially in Southeast Asia, and have potential for medical research and pharmaceutical development. Additionally, amphibians contribute to regulating services by controlling mosquito populations and potentially controlling other pest species. They also provide cultural services through their role in recreation, religion, spirituality, and aesthetics. Furthermore, amphibians play a significant role in ecosystem structure and function, such as soil burrowing, waste excretion, and nutrient cycling. Overall, amphibians are important for maintaining the integrity and functioning of ecosystems and provide various ecosystem services that benefit both wildlife and human societies.

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