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What are the effects of lipopolysaccharide on microglia? 

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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has various effects on microglia. LPS treatment increases microglial GABA uptake and GABA transporter (GAT)-1 trafficking, which can trigger the inflammatory response by altering microglial GABA clearance . LPS-induced microglial activation is accompanied by the induction of CD147 expression, and inhibiting CD147 expression can inhibit LPS-induced microglial inflammatory activation . LPS treatment also leads to microglia activation and neuroinflammation, but D-beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) treatment attenuates these effects by reducing the generation of inflammatory cytokines and promoting the generation of protective factors . LPS-induced neuroinflammation can be attenuated by triggering the receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), which modulates microglial polarization from M1 to M2 phenotype . LPS stimulation of iPSC-microglia induces a transcriptional response, and LPS+IFN-γ stimulation shows a convergent mechanism of action with ATPγS stimulation .

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The consecutive injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 4 days increased the polarization of microglia to the M1 phenotype, enhancing the inflammatory response of neuroinflammation. However, on Day 7, there was a considerable increase in the microglial M2 phenotype, indicating a reduced inflammatory response in the CNS environment.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces inflammatory activation of microglia, as shown by the induction of CD147 expression and the upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in microglia.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increases microglial GABA uptake and GABA transporter-1 (GAT-1) trafficking. LPS also induces upregulation of bestrophin-1 (BEST-1), a Ca2+-activated Cl- channel permeable to GABA.
The paper states that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provokes a transcriptional response in mouse microglia and LPS+IFN-γ in human iPSC-microglia. However, the specific effects of LPS on microglia are not mentioned in the paper.

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