What are the long-term effects of the Cambodian genocide?3 answersThe long-term effects of the Cambodian genocide include increased antisocial and risk-taking behaviors among individuals who directly experienced violence during the genocide period. However, individuals who did not directly experience genocidal violence show relatively muted effects. The genocide also had positive effects on women's economic advancement and current-day indicators of women's representation in local-level elected office. In areas that suffered the worst killings, widows obtained economic autonomy, leading to a shift in norms regarding the sexual division of labor and allowing women to adopt larger public roles over time. Additionally, the genocide is negatively associated with subsequent educational investments for children born to couples who had their first child during the Pol Pot period. Children of individuals who experienced greater intensity of the genocide have worse educational and health outcomes, suggesting intergenerational impacts.
What is the harm of hate speech?4 answersHate speech causes harm by undermining the dignity and social standing of targeted individuals and minority groups. It creates a social environment that communicates a message of insecurity, humiliation, and discrimination to those who are targeted. Hate speech goes beyond causing offense and can lead to deeper forms of alienation and fear. By heaping calumny on vulnerable minority groups, hate speech damages the public good of inclusion and respect for all members of society. It poses a threat to the lives, dignity, and reputations of those targeted. Hate speech is not necessary for a vigorous exchange of ideas or the legitimacy of a liberal political system. Instead, hate speech undermines the assurance that individuals can lead their lives free from unwanted assaults on their security and well-being.
What are long term and short term effects and consequences of fake news?5 answersLong-term consequences of fake news include a decrease in trust in mainstream media. Exposure to fake news, whether through social media or traditional news, contributes to people's exposure to popular fake news stories. Fake news can have detrimental effects such as disrupting public opinion, influencing democratic processes, creating social chaos, and damaging the reputation of individuals or organizations. In the context of the coronavirus pandemic, fake news about COVID-19 has been found to have small but measurable effects on behavioral intentions, such as a reduction in willingness to download a contact-tracing app. Short-term effects of fake news include the potential for political and societal consequences, as seen in the 2016 United States presidential election and ongoing protests. Generic warnings about online misinformation are unlikely to be effective in mitigating the effects of fake news.
What are the long-term effects of weight loss?5 answersWeight loss has long-term effects on biomarkers of angiogenesis, specifically VEGF and PEDF, in postmenopausal overweight/obese women. Participants who maintained weight loss through diet and/or exercise had significant reductions in VEGF levels at 30 months compared to those who gained weight or had no weight change. These reductions in VEGF were observed in participants randomized to diet, exercise, and diet + exercise arms, indicating the effectiveness of these interventions in achieving sustained weight loss. However, there were no statistically significant changes in PEDF levels in any intervention arm. These findings suggest that maintaining weight loss through diet and/or exercise can lead to long-term reductions in angiogenic factors, which may have implications for cancer prevention and treatment.
What are the long-term consequences of the Iraq war?4 answersThe long-term consequences of the Iraq war include the enduring mental health toll on military veterans, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) being a significant outcome. A study found that 24.7% of participants met the case definition for PTSD at long-term follow-up, which was an increase from pre-deployment (7.4%) and post-deployment (10.5%) assessments. The war has also had a transformative effect on the Middle East, impacting the regional balance of power, local perceptions of U.S. credibility, domestic stability of neighboring states, and trends in terrorism. War captivity experiences have led to serious psychological consequences in veterans and former prisoners of war, which can persist for years or even decades after release. The Iraq war resulted in profound adverse health consequences, including deaths of Iraqi non-combatants and coalition military personnel, injuries, displacement, and psychological problems among military personnel and their families.
What are the long term effects of gene editing?10 answers