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What are the mechanisms of endocrine-immune interactions? 


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The mechanisms of endocrine-immune interactions involve a bidirectional communication between the two systems. The immune system and the neuroendocrine system share common features and use similar molecules and receptors for communication . Hormones, cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters play a role in modulating the host immune response . Parasites can influence the host's endocrine status and alter hormone levels . Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria can directly modify the physiology of the anterior pituitary and affect hormone production . The immune system-derived thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) controls thyroid hormone synthesis and bone metamorphosis . The cross-regulation of endocrine and immune mechanisms in pro- and anti-inflammatory responses is not fully understood . Understanding these mechanisms is important for developing new therapies for infectious diseases .

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The paper discusses the mechanisms of endocrine-immune interactions, specifically focusing on the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on pituitary physiology and the molecular mechanisms involved.
The paper discusses the dynamic interactions between the immune system and the neuroendocrine system, but it does not specifically mention the mechanisms of endocrine-immune interactions.
The paper discusses the close relationship between hormones, cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters that modulate the host immune response. It mentions that disruption of this communication balance can result in disease or higher susceptibility to infections. However, it does not provide specific mechanisms of endocrine-immune interactions.
The paper discusses the principal mechanisms of bi-directional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems.

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