What are the different methods for water analysis in river water?5 answersMethods for water analysis in river water include spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, hydride formation, inductively coupled plasma atomic-omissions spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, ion-selective electrodes, flow-injection analysis, polarography, emission spectrometry, alpha-particle-induced X-ray emission spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, ion chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and gas chromatography. Additionally, a multi-point sampling and detecting system has been developed for river water, which allows for remote sampling, controlled sampling flow, and circular analysis of samples from different points using the same group of probes. Another device for river water sample collection and field analysis has been invented, which measures pH, conductivity, and the concentration of insoluble particles in the water body. These methods and devices contribute to the accurate analysis of water quality in rivers.
Isolation of bacteria in water ponds4 answersIsolation and identification of bacteria from water ponds have been conducted in several studies. Masudi and Titilawo isolated bacteria from microalgae-bacteria flocs (MaB-flocs) in high-rate algal oxidation ponds (HRAOP) of an integrated algal pond system (IAPS) remediating municipal wastewater. Gandhi and Kumar isolated microcystin degrading bacteria from holy ponds in Utter Pradesh, India. Khan isolated heterocyclic hydrocarbon degrading bacteria from lake water in Malaysia. Panwichian et al. isolated purple nonsulfur bacteria (PNB) from shrimp ponds in southern Thailand. Diep and Cuc isolated heterotrophic nitrogen removal (HNR) bacteria from striped catfish ponds. These studies demonstrate the diversity of bacteria that can be isolated from water ponds and their potential for bioremediation of pollutants.
Isolation and growth of water bacteria5 answersThe isolation and growth of water bacteria have been studied in various contexts. In one study, bacterial species with significant radio-tolerance and biofilm-forming capabilities were isolated from a spent nuclear fuel (SNF) pool water. Another study focused on isolating bacteria from sand filters (SFs) in drinking water treatment plants, with the majority of isolates belonging to Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Photosynthetic bacteria, specifically Rhodopseudomonas capsulatus and Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides, were isolated from fishpond water, and their growth conditions were studied. Additionally, the bacterial count and identification were assessed in streams, revealing the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These studies provide insights into the diversity and characteristics of water bacteria, their potential applications in bioremediation and water quality monitoring, and the factors influencing their growth.
How to detect Antimicrobial resistance gene in water?5 answersAntimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in water can be detected using various molecular techniques. High throughput real-time polymerase chain reaction (HT-qPCR) is a nanoliter scale method that can analyze multiple gene targets simultaneously, but it may lack in analytical sensitivity and individual assay optimization. Metagenomics, on the other hand, provides detailed genomic information and taxonomic resolution by sequencing all the microbial genomes within a sample, allowing for the discovery of new ARGs. Whole genome sequencing provides the complete genomic profile of a single environmental isolate and can identify all genetic elements that may confer antimicrobial resistance. PCR, 16S rRNA, FISH, and DNA microarrays are also recommended tests for screening water-associated pathogens, as they detect nucleic acids and facilitate the differential diagnosis of various pathogens. Biosensor technology and nano-diagnostics have also shown promise in the rapid and accurate detection of infectious agents in water.
How to isolate diatom or cyanobacteria DNA from water samples?5 answersTo isolate diatom or cyanobacteria DNA from water samples, several methods can be used. One method involves using a glass bead-vortex oscillation technique, which has been shown to improve the extraction efficiency of diatom DNA from forensic materials, including water samples. Another method involves lysing the cells of cyanobacteria using three sequential freezing and heating steps, followed by enzymatic treatment with lysozyme and proteinase K. DNA extraction and purification can then be achieved using the chaotropic agent guanidium isothiocyanate and silica particles. An alternative method for genomic DNA extraction from cyanobacteria involves using a lysis buffer to lyse the cells, without the need for lysozyme treatment or sonication. This method has been shown to yield high-quality genomic DNA from various cyanobacteria species. Overall, these methods provide effective ways to isolate diatom or cyanobacteria DNA from water samples for further molecular analyses.
How to detect antibiotic genes in wastewater?2 answersAntibiotic genes can be detected in wastewater through various methods. One approach is the culture-independent wastewater-based epidemiological surveillance (WBE) approach, which involves collecting wastewater samples and evaluating them for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs). Another method is shotgun metagenomic sequencing, which uses a hybrid assembly approach to detect ARGs within DNA derived from wastewater samples. Additionally, the bacteriophage fraction of wastewater can be investigated for the presence of ARGs, as bacteriophages are thought to contribute to the dissemination of ARGs in the environment. Quantitative PCR (q-PCR) can also be used to assess the distribution of ARGs in different types of wastewater, such as domestic, livestock, hospital, and pharmaceutical wastewater. Finally, targeted analysis of wastewater samples can provide estimations of ARG carriage in the population connected to the sewers and release to the environment.