scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question

What is PMMA phantom? 


Best insight from top research papers

A PMMA phantom is a type of phantom made from polymethyl methacrylate, also known as acrylic. It is used in various medical imaging and radiation therapy applications. PMMA phantoms are designed to mimic the properties of human tissue and are used to calibrate and test imaging equipment, measure absorbed dose rates, and verify the accuracy of treatment planning systems. They are often used in CT scanning to measure modulation transfer function (MTF) , absorbed dose rate to water and penumbra in Gamma Knife® (GK) , proton energy verification , and proton therapy verification using PET scanning . PMMA phantoms are cost-effective, easy to handle, and provide reliable results for various applications in medical imaging and radiation therapy . They are commonly used in combination with ionization chambers for dosimetry measurements in CT scanning .

Answers from top 4 papers

More filters
Papers (4)Insight
PMMA phantom is a transparent and homogeneous block made of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) that is used in particle therapy experiments.
The paper does not provide a direct explanation of what a PMMA phantom is.
The paper does not provide a direct definition of a PMMA phantom.
The paper does not provide a specific definition or explanation of what a PMMA phantom is.

Related Questions

What is composition of agar based brain phantoms?5 answersThe composition of agar-based brain phantoms typically includes agar as the base material mimicking brain tissue, along with additional components for specific properties. For instance, a brain phantom recipe consists of agar, Silica Dioxide, and evaporated milk to mimic brain tissue, with specific attenuation coefficients and thermal conductivities. Another study incorporated agarose, gadolinium-based contrast agent, sodium fluoride, and distilled water to create a phantom suitable for MRI and CT imaging, allowing for representation of various contrasts in images. Additionally, agarose phantoms for magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) research involve factors like agar concentration, cooling rate, and salt content to achieve mechanical consistency and desired stiffness. These compositions enable the fabrication of brain phantoms that closely mimic the properties of actual brain tissue for various research and testing purposes.
What is PMBOK?4 answersThe Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) is a guide that provides a set of standard terminology and guidelines for project management. It is used to support the teaching and learning process of project management in various fields, including computer science. The PMBOK is also compared with other project management methodologies, such as Projects IN Controlled Environments (PRINCE2), to determine the most suitable approach for managing different types of construction projects. In the context of stakeholder management in education, the PMBOK is used to design appropriate strategies for managing stakeholders in schools. Additionally, the PMBOK is applied in the field of logistics and humanitarian aid to optimize the recovery phase of disaster projects, such as the Brumadinho disaster in Brazil. The effectiveness of communication channels in project stakeholder management is also studied using the PMBOK as a reference.
What is PHM?4 answersPrognostics and Health Management (PHM) is a field that focuses on estimating the health status of systems, anticipating their failure, and optimizing maintenance. It involves methods, tools, and algorithms for monitoring, anomaly detection, cause diagnosis, prognosis of remaining useful life (RUL), and maintenance optimization. PHM allows for continuous monitoring of system health and provides relevant information to operators and managers for decision-making on maintenance actions. It is applied in various industries such as aerospace, healthcare, precision medicine, human performance, and automotive. PHM aims to make maintenance more efficient and cost-effective by predicting when and why a part would fail. It involves technological and analytical aspects such as wearable smart sensors, rehabilitation devices, image classification, signal processing, data mining, machine learning, and electronic health records. PHM is also used to address complexities arising from the operating environment and component degradation by automatically identifying anomalies and solving reliability problems.
What is agile PM?3 answersAgile project management (PM) is an approach that focuses on self-directed teams, feedback, light documentation, and delivering working software in shorter development cycles. It differs significantly from traditional PM in terms of the role of the project manager. Agile PM is proven to improve the value of software delivered to customers. The evolution of PM techniques is driven by theories from Operational Excellence (OE), such as Lean, Agile, and Six Sigma. These techniques aim to reduce variation in workflow, leading to reduced time and cost. They also encourage collaboration and transparency among teams, facilitating effective project deployment and minimizing resources, costs, durations, and risks. Scrum, a leading agile development methodology, is used to tackle complex and dynamic projects, transforming the way project teams operate. Agile PM is a topic of discussion and innovation at the International Conference on Agile Software Development (XP), where researchers and practitioners come together to share their experiences and trends in Agile.
What are the deformable phantoms?5 answersDeformable phantoms are realistic models that can be shaped or molded to replicate the characteristics of specific tissues or organs. These phantoms are designed to mimic the anatomical, mechanical, and hydrodynamic properties of the tissues they represent. They are often made using materials such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or agar-gelatin mixtures, which can be flexible and moldable. Deformable phantoms have been developed for various applications, including testing and calibrating optical imaging systems, analyzing urethral dynamics, generating micro-CT datasets, and creating personalized anatomy models. These phantoms provide a valuable tool for studying and simulating the behavior of tissues and organs in different scenarios, allowing for the development and validation of diagnostic and treatment techniques.
Why are lung phantoms necessary?5 answersLung phantoms are necessary for several reasons. Firstly, they are essential tools for assessing and verifying performance in computed tomography (CT) research and development. Secondly, they enable the evaluation of novel CT hardware and software by providing realistic patient-based lung models with accurate contrast, textures, and attenuation profiles. Thirdly, lung phantoms allow for protocol optimization and advancements in CT technology. Additionally, they facilitate the generation of ground-truth datasets for radiomic evaluations. Furthermore, lung phantoms are used in quality assurance of deformable image registration (DIR) in adaptive radiotherapy, particularly for longitudinal cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging data. Lastly, lung phantoms can be used to mimic pulmonary fibrosis, providing a valuable tool for studying and understanding this condition.

See what other people are reading

What is a Coded Mask?
5 answers
A coded mask is an imaging technique utilized in various fields like high-energy astronomy, X-ray wavefront sensing, and proton therapy monitoring. In high-energy astronomy, coded mask instruments have been employed for decades to achieve moderate angular resolutions over large fields of view. In X-ray wavefront sensing, a coded-mask-based technique offers high phase sensitivity and spatial resolution using deep-learning-based analysis. In proton therapy monitoring, coded-mask imaging has been tested experimentally and via simulations, showing promising results for online monitoring of beam range or deposited dose distribution. These masks consist of structured collimators and detectors, enabling precise imaging of point-like sources and accurate reconstruction of images with relatively fast algorithms, making them competitive options for monitoring applications.
What is the SiFI-CC project?
5 answers
The SiFi-CC project aims to develop a SiPM and scintillation Fiber-based Compton Camera for real-time monitoring of proton therapy. This project involves optimizing the design components, constructing a prototype, and testing its performance, achieving a position resolution of 33.38 mm and an energy resolution of 7.73%. Additionally, machine learning techniques are employed to recognize Compton events and reconstruct the prompt gamma emission profile during proton therapy, with the best model being the boosted decision tree (BDT). Furthermore, the SiFi project focuses on indoor localization using a single AP, achieving sub-meter accuracy with MIMO technology and without requiring multiple APs or disrupting data communication. The SiFi project showcases advancements in medical monitoring technology and indoor localization systems.
Why does crstallite size reduces as measured through XRD?
5 answers
The reduction in crystallite size as measured through X-ray diffraction (XRD) can be attributed to various factors. Firstly, the introduction of moisture into cellulose samples leads to a decrease in the absolute intensity of the (200) reflection and a decline in its full width at half maximum, affecting the crystallite size measurements. Additionally, the accuracy of crystallite size measurements heavily depends on the level of noise present in the experimental diffraction patterns, with the dispersion of grain sizes being more sensitive to noise than the average grain size. Moreover, the X-ray diffraction pattern's spottiness and intensity are related to the size and distribution of crystallites, impacting the evaluation of crystallite size distribution. Therefore, factors like moisture content, noise in experimental data, and crystallite distribution play crucial roles in the reduction of crystallite size measurements obtained through XRD.
How has AI helped in optimising the Quality Assurance process?
5 answers
AI has significantly optimized the Quality Assurance (QA) process across various industries. In the field of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), AI-driven models have reduced technical variability, improved embryo quality prediction, and highlighted environmental stressors affecting embryo development. In software engineering, AI tools have been utilized for software quality assurance (SQA), enhancing market-oriented approaches and optimizing business processes within QA strategies. Moreover, in end-of-line (EOL) quality assurance for finished components, a fully AI-based quality classification system has automated the process, achieving high accuracy in quality control through Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and explainable AI methods. Additionally, AI has been employed in the medical field to detect subtle MRI scanner faults, such as coil element malfunction, with higher accuracy than human radiographers, showcasing the potential of AI methods in supporting traditional QA processes.
). Can Deep Learning Detect Esophageal Lesions In PET-CT Scans?
4 answers
Deep learning has shown significant promise in detecting esophageal lesions in PET-CT scans. Studies have utilized convolutional neural networks (CNNs) trained on PET and CT image segments to achieve high accuracy levels, exceeding 95% for PET data and over 90% for CT data. Additionally, a 3D-CNN model has been developed to predict esophageal cancer outcomes with acceptable accuracy, identifying tumors with aggressive behavior. Furthermore, deep learning-based noise reduction methods have been found to improve the detectability of small lesions in low-statistics PET images, enhancing lesion detectability in challenging scenarios. These findings collectively demonstrate the potential of deep learning in accurately detecting esophageal lesions in PET-CT scans, offering valuable tools for clinical practice and research.
Periphocal3d calculates the out-of-field doses from photon radiotherapy. Which papers use or discuss periphocal3d?
5 answers
The software periphocal3d is not specifically mentioned in the provided contexts. However, various papers discuss the calculation of out-of-field doses in photon radiotherapy using different methods and models. These papers explore the accuracy of treatment planning systems (TPS), compare out-of-field dose distributions predicted by different algorithms, analyze radiation spectra and out-of-field doses in water phantoms under different conditions, and investigate out-of-field neutron and non-neutron organ doses in pediatric patients undergoing radiotherapy. While periphocal3d is not directly referenced, these studies provide valuable insights into out-of-field dose calculations in photon radiotherapy using different approaches and technologies.
How is needle EMG examination preformed?
4 answers
The needle electromyography (EMG) examination involves two main components: nerve conduction studies (NCS) and needle EMG. During needle EMG, a needle electrode is inserted into a muscle to record and analyze the electrical signals produced by individual muscle fibers of motor units, both at rest and during voluntary contraction. This procedure requires a skilled approach to minimize patient discomfort and anxiety, emphasizing the importance of a gentle and informed technique for optimal patient cooperation. Training for needle EMG is crucial, and a robotic simulator has been proposed to aid in replicating various pathological conditions for practice, with a focus on needle tip localization using a tissue-like conductive phantom to enhance accuracy in detecting needle position within muscles. Safe and accurate needle access during EMG examinations, such as for the rhomboid major muscle, can be facilitated by ultrasound guidance to determine the appropriate insertion point.
How effective are reference ionization chambers in measuring radiation dose in radiation dosimetry?
5 answers
Reference ionization chambers play a crucial role in measuring radiation dose in radiation dosimetry by providing accurate and stable measurements. These chambers are utilized as standard instruments for calibration and quality control purposes. They offer high stability, linear response to dose, and optimal charge collection efficiency, ensuring reliable measurements. However, it is essential to consider factors like material composition and structure, as certain ionization chambers may exhibit response variations based on storage humidity. Despite this, reference ionization chambers generally demonstrate consistent and precise performance, making them effective tools for quantifying radiation doses in various applications, including radiotherapy and radiobiological experiments. Their traceability to international standards through periodic calibrations further enhances their reliability for accurate dose measurements.
What are the advantages of using ionization chambers for dosimetric purposes in diagnostic radiology?
5 answers
Ionization chambers offer several advantages for dosimetric purposes in diagnostic radiology. They provide accurate measurements of radiation dosesand are essential devices for radiation dosimetry. Ionization chambers can be designed with features like high stability, linear response to dose, and efficient charge collection. In the context of computed tomography (CT) exams, ionization chambers are used for dosimetry procedures, with specialized chambers designed for CT scanners. Additionally, ionization chambers can be employed in end-to-end tests for stereotactic radiosurgery treatments, ensuring accurate dose distributions. Overall, the use of ionization chambers in diagnostic radiology allows for precise and reliable measurements of radiation doses, making them valuable tools in ensuring patient safety and treatment efficacy.
How does the choice of irradiation field size impact the radiation dose received by patients during CT scans?
4 answers
The choice of irradiation field size significantly affects the radiation dose received by patients during CT scans. Different field of view (FOV) sizes in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) units have been shown to impact the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Moreover, variations in exposure parameters and field sizes in imaging protocols can lead to differences in size-specific effective dose (SED) received by patients, with smaller patients potentially receiving higher doses compared to average-sized individuals. It is crucial to optimize CT scan protocols to ensure that diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are met, taking into account factors such as body size, kVp, mAs, and pitch to regulate the volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and minimize radiation exposure. Proper selection of irradiation field size is essential to balance diagnostic image quality with minimizing radiation risks for patients undergoing CT scans.
How much radiation do dogs take after radiography?
5 answers
Dogs undergoing radiography receive varying levels of radiation exposure depending on the specific procedure and equipment used. Studies have shown that the absorbed dose per radiograph decreases with increasing kilovoltage peak (kVp) settings. For instance, in proton radiography, dogs received a low dose of 0.03 mGy during exposure, significantly lower than conventional X-ray imaging. Additionally, during X-ray examinations, the equivalent doses on various anatomical regions of the staff involved were generally low, with eye lenses and thyroid receiving measurable doses. Furthermore, in veterinary dentistry, backscatter radiation levels were found to be below permitted annual occupational doses, emphasizing the importance of radiation protection for operators. Overall, while radiation exposure during radiography is present, proper protocols and equipment settings can help minimize the dose received by dogs.