scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question

What is priming in immunology? 

Best insight from top research papers

Priming in immunology refers to the phenomenon where a host's immune system is enhanced or "primed" after an initial exposure to a pathogen, leading to a more effective immune response upon subsequent infections with the same or different pathogens . In invertebrates, immune priming has been observed to improve survival rates and increase the strength of the immune response against previously encountered microbes . This enhanced immune defense is thought to be a result of specific circumstances and may not occur universally in all cases . Immune priming can also be influenced by beneficial symbionts, which can enhance the priming process and provide protection against pathogens . The mechanisms underlying immune priming in invertebrates are not yet fully understood, but studies suggest the involvement of regulatory elements of the cell cycle in the induction of priming . Overall, immune priming plays a crucial role in the tripartite interaction between hosts, symbionts, and pathogens, and understanding its mechanisms can help in better understanding disease transmission and persistence in invertebrate populations .

Answers from top 5 papers

More filters
Papers (5)Insight
Priming in immunology refers to an increase in survival or strength of an immune response against a microbe to which the host has been previously exposed.
Priming in immunology refers to the ability of an organism to acquire a protective immune response against a pathogen due to previous exposure to the same organism.
Priming in immunology refers to the process by which a host improves its immune defenses following an initial pathogenic exposure, leading to better protection after a subsequent infection with the same or different pathogens.
The provided paper does not mention the term "priming" in the context of immunology.
Priming in immunology refers to the phenomenon where a host's immune system becomes more effective in fighting a secondary exposure to the same pathogen after a primary exposure.

Related Questions

How does seed priming affect the germination and seedlings growth of cucumber?5 answersSeed priming has been shown to have a positive effect on the germination and seedling growth of cucumber. Priming with plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria such as Bacillus cereus, Acinetobacter radioresistens, Pseudomonas paralactis, and Sinorhizobium meliloti significantly improved germination percentage, vigor, plumule and radicle length, and the synthesis of phytocompounds in cucumber seeds. Other priming methods, such as hormonal priming with GA3 and hydropriming, also resulted in higher germination percentage, shorter mean germination time, increased germination energy, and improved root length and seedling vigor. Additionally, priming with zinc nano particles at 20 ppm concentration increased seed germination, plant height, leaf area, flower number, fruit weight, and fruit quality parameters such as total soluble solids and ascorbic acid. Priming with KH2PO4 at 0.001 M concentration showed the highest germination percentage, shoot length, root length, seedling dry weight, seedling vigor index, and dehydrogenase enzyme activity in cucumber seeds. Overall, seed priming treatments have been found to enhance germination and seedling growth in cucumber, leading to improved crop performance.
What are the effects of barley seed priming on the establishment of barley seedlings?5 answersBarley seed priming has been shown to have positive effects on the establishment of barley seedlings. Primed seeds exhibit enhanced germination performance and increased vigor index, leading to a rapid and uniform emergence and root growth. Seed priming activates enzymes involved in cellular metabolism, breaks seed dormancy, and improves water imbibition, resulting in better tolerance to abiotic stresses. Priming treatments activate pre-germinative seed metabolism, induce antioxidant systems, and activate DNA repair pathways, ensuring the integrity of the seed genome and successful germination. Phytohormone priming has been found to improve growth and yield of plants, enhance crop productivity, and improve plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stressors. Overall, seed priming treatments, such as osmopriming and hormopriming, can lead to faster and more synchronized germination, increased vigor, and improved resistance to abiotic stresses in barley seedlings.
What are the benefits of seed priming in barley?5 answersSeed priming in barley has several benefits. Priming with salicylic acid or calcium chloride improves plant growth, water content, chlorophyll content, and photosynthetic activity in barley species exposed to salinity. Treating barley seeds with gibberellic acid enhances seed germination, germination vigor, germination speed, shoot length, root length, and total dry weight. Hydro-priming and thermo-priming significantly improve germination, seedling vigor, field emergence, and radical emergence in barley. Priming with Moringa leaf extract and aqueous garlic extract improves germination in barley seeds. Seed priming with hydrogen peroxide and/or micronutrients increases germination in hemp and barley, with micronutrients also improving germination under salt stress in barley. Overall, seed priming in barley enhances germination, seedling vigor, and plant growth, and can improve tolerance to salinity and other stress conditions.
How to design priming material that effectively evokes emotions in virtual reality?4 answersTo design priming material that effectively evokes emotions in virtual reality, several factors should be considered. One approach is to use stimuli that evoke cognitive schemas and emotions related to the desired emotions. For example, in one study, stimuli designed to evoke the schema of a significant other were implemented in a virtual reality simulator, resulting in the evocation of positive and negative emotions in firefighters. Another approach is to use contextual priming, where participants are exposed to stimuli related to the virtual environment before the VR experience. This has been shown to enhance the sense of presence and familiarity, leading to a higher sense of presence during the virtual task. Additionally, the efficacy of context in priming desired effects has been observed in both Desktop Virtual Reality (DVR) and Immersive VR (IVR) environments, with increased academic performance observed in priming scenarios compared to no priming conditions. Overall, designing priming material that effectively evokes emotions in virtual reality involves considering cognitive schemas, emotions, and contextual priming.
What are the basics of immunology?3 answersThe basics of immunology involve understanding the immune system's role in protecting the body from pathogens and foreign bodies. The immune system consists of cellular components, immune organs, and molecules that work together to mount immune responses. There are two main types of immune responses: innate immune response, which is the first line of defense against pathogens, and adaptive immune response, which is a more complex reaction that occurs when the innate response is not sufficient. Computational approaches are also being used to study the immune system and develop therapeutic strategies for diseases like infectious diseases, immunodeficiency, allergies, autoimmune disorders, cancer, and HIV.
What are the effects of text priming on word recognition?4 answersText priming has been shown to have effects on word recognition. In the study by Girija P C, it was found that phonological priming exercises can improve word recognition skills, as phonologically primed word pairs have better reaction time and task completion time compared to nonprimed word pairs. Another study by Nan Jiang and Xuesong Wu found that prime-target pairs with orthographical overlap produced a masked priming effect in second language (L2) speakers but not in first language (L1) speakers. Cynthia T. Johnson's study on students with dyslexia showed that word and picture priming treatments assisted participants in reading target words more quickly, with younger and less-skilled readers showing enhanced effects of semantics. Ran Wei's study on Chinese word recognition found positive semantic and phonological priming effects, with semantic priming having a stronger effect than phonological priming. Overall, these studies demonstrate that text priming can have a significant impact on word recognition.

See what other people are reading

What are the technical, economic, and social barriers to the deployment of hybrid renewable energy systems?
5 answers
Technical, economic, and social barriers to the deployment of hybrid renewable energy systems have been identified in the literature. Technical barriers include the integration of variable power into the grid, the intermittent and unpredictable nature of solar and wind energy, and the need for optimization algorithms for techno-economic analysis. Economic barriers involve the consideration of economic factors in the planning phase of hybrid systems, while social barriers encompass socio-cultural factors that hinder the implementation of low-carbon development. These barriers can impede the progress of renewable energy systems and require attention to ensure successful deployment.
What are the benefits and challenges of food tourism?
5 answers
Food tourism offers several benefits, including the revitalization of local cuisines and the provision of authentic cultural experiences. It can contribute to local economies, benefit local communities, and increase local food consumption. Food tourism also allows tourists to try out gastronomy specialties and provides opportunities for the development of unique and innovative tourism products and services. However, there are also challenges associated with food tourism. These challenges include the need to ensure food safety and adhere to food safety standards. Additionally, the production of local food for tourism consumption can be affected by factors such as climate change, natural disasters, urbanization, and food security concerns. It is important for food tour operators to address these challenges and develop strategies to overcome them in order to provide satisfying food tourism experiences.
How does radiation affect DNA?
5 answers
Radiation affects DNA through direct and indirect mechanisms. Direct effects involve the interaction of high energy ionizing radiation with DNA, leading to excitation and ionization events. These interactions can result in the transfer of electrons and holes from the surroundings into DNA, causing damage to specific DNA bases. Indirect effects occur when radiation generates highly reactive secondary species, such as low-energy electrons, which can cause DNA strand breaks through dissociative electron attachment. UV radiation, specifically UVB and UVA, induces DNA damage through direct and indirect effects. Bipyrimidine photoproducts, including cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, are major UV-induced DNA lesions, while UVA photooxidation damage primarily involves guanine residues. Both ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure can lead to DNA damage and genetic mutations, contributing to the development of cancer. High linear energy transfer (high-LET) radiation, such as alpha particles, induces clustered DNA damage, which is challenging for DNA repair processes.
What is the clinical presentation of anti-HMGCR antibodies positive myopathy in Chinese patients?
5 answers
The clinical presentation of anti-HMGCR antibodies positive myopathy in Chinese patients includes progressive myalgia and weakness, elevated creatine kinase (CK) levels, and pressure pain in the scapularis and pelvic girdle muscles. Neurological examination may reveal V-grade muscle strength in the proximal extremities. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may show high signals in specific muscles, such as the right vastus lateralis and semimembranosus muscles. Biopsy findings may include myofibrillar degeneration and necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, and deposition of C5b9 in non-necrotic myofibrils. Other clinical features of the disease may include elevated CK levels, active myogenic damage in electromyography, and edema and steatosis of certain muscle groups. Treatment typically involves glucocorticoids and other immunosuppressive therapies.
What is spatial conservation planning?
5 answers
Spatial conservation planning is a process that aims to define and implement a comprehensive protected area system in a region or at any scale. The goal is to ensure the representation of critical biodiversity components, such as populations, species occurrences, ecosystems, or ecological processes, in protected areas. This involves selecting additional areas for protection using reserve selection algorithms. The implementation of a conservation plan is a primary constraint, as it requires agreement and cooperation from local stakeholders and authorities. Spatial conservation planning involves resolving conflicts between ecology and economy by using analytical models and tools from Operations Research (OR). It requires the integration of large and diverse datasets to address a variety of concerns and challenges. The use of spatial analysis techniques and geographic perspectives is crucial in understanding and quantifying the spatial patterns and processes related to environmental conservation. By prioritizing actions over places and estimating impacts, spatial action mapping can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of conservation efforts. The integration of conservation principles and priorities in marine spatial planning is important for promoting sustainability and biodiversity conservation.
What are The SERVPERF?
5 answers
SERVPERF is a measurement tool used to assess service quality in various industries. It consists of multiple dimensions that capture different aspects of service performance. The dimensions identified in the abstracts include tangibility, reliability, assurance-responsiveness, empathy, and assurance. These dimensions are used to evaluate customer perceptions of service quality and can be adapted to different contexts and purposes. The SERVPERF scale is often used in research studies to understand customer preferences and decision-making processes. It has been applied in different sectors, such as the hospitality industry, healthcare services, and internal auditing. Researchers have compared SERVPERF with other measurement tools, such as SERVQUAL, to understand the factors influencing the choice of measurement instruments in service quality research. Overall, SERVPERF is a widely used tool for assessing service quality and understanding customer perceptions in various industries.
How can the cooling performance of thermoelectric materials be calculated?
5 answers
The cooling performance of thermoelectric materials can be calculated by analyzing various thermoelectric properties and optimizing their relationship. The Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity are the key properties that affect cooling performance. Sensitivity analysis can be used to determine the impact of these properties on the cooling coefficient of performance (COP). It has been found that the cooling COP is more sensitive to the Seebeck coefficient, and the maximum value is determined by the figure of merit (ZT) value. Increasing the ZT value can significantly enhance the cooling performance of thermoelectric air cooling systems, making them comparable to conventional heat pump systems. Therefore, optimizing the thermoelectric properties, particularly the Seebeck coefficient and ZT value, is crucial for improving the cooling performance of thermoelectric materials.
What are the benefits of design thinking for creativity?
5 answers
Design thinking has several benefits for creativity. It helps people reach creativity and innovation by providing a philosophy, mindset, and strategy. Design thinking activities performed in groups can boost students' creativity by fostering collaborative efforts and establishing relationships among people and objects. Incorporating design thinking into the engineering classroom facilitates student development of a creative cognitive process, enabling innovative solutions to complex engineering and sustainability challenges. Design thinking is a well-established approach to fostering high-level creativity and innovation, and it focuses on developing and practicing creative cognition and metacognition. Design thinking also plays a role in the formation of creativity by influencing the development of innovative team solutions and the solution of complex problems. Overall, design thinking enhances creativity by providing a human-centered, collaborative, and creative design methodology that fosters cognitive aspects of creativity and enables innovative problem-solving.
What is Glia-to-neuron Conversion?
3 answers
Glia-to-neuron conversion is a process in which glial cells are reprogrammed into neurons. This approach aims to replenish lost neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and restore function. Several studies have investigated glia-to-neuron conversion in different regions of the CNS, including the retina. The conversion process involves the regulation of specific factors, such as PTBP1, an RNA-binding protein. Inhibition of PTBP1 has been reported to induce efficient glia-to-neuron conversion in the retina. However, subsequent replication studies have failed to validate these findings and have raised concerns about the accuracy of the original claims. It is important to use stringent methods, including genetic manipulation and lineage tracing, to accurately study glia-to-neuron conversion. Further research is needed to fully understand the potential of glia-to-neuron conversion as a regenerative strategy in the CNS.
What are the best gluten free noodle recipe?
5 answers
The best gluten-free noodle recipes can be found in the following papers. Nursanti Aprilianti et al. developed a recipe using jackfruit seed flour, corn starch, and carrots to create gluten-free dry noodles that meet quality requirements. Merve Şahin et al. used broken chickpea flour in combination with commercial gluten-free flour to produce gluten-free noodles with improved nutritional content. Han-Na Jang and Andreas Romulo found that reducing the amount of porang flour in shirataki noodles resulted in decreased elasticity and improved rehydration properties. Kenjiro Sugiyama et al. developed gluten-free rice flour noodles using potato starch as a binder, with a texture similar to wheat flour udon noodles. David Albuja-Vaca et al. substituted rice flour with lupin flour to create gluten-free pasta with increased protein and mineral content.
What are the design optimization parameters of aluminum bumper beam for lightweight?
5 answers
The design optimization parameters of the aluminum bumper beam for lightweight include the selection of materials, such as aluminum alloy and carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP). The thickness and lay-up angle of the CFRP bumper beam are also important factors to consider. Additionally, the section shape and size of the anti-collision beam can be optimized using methods like the three-point static pressure method and optistruct optimization function. The use of inner rib shape and section thickness distribution can further enhance the crashworthiness of the aluminum bumper backbeam. Overall, these design optimization parameters aim to reduce the weight of the bumper beam while maintaining its crashworthiness and structural performance.